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Which clippings match 'Cognitive Actions' keyword pg.1 of 1
23 FEBRUARY 2014

Jamie O'Neil: Skipping Slides (building cognitive maps)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 AUGUST 2013

An improved method of studying the user/search process in user-system interactions

"A major 'user/search process' limitation identified by Kinsella and Bryant (1987) is the inability to isolate and characterise individual users of on–line systems in order to describe the pattern of their use. Users' perceptions of their searches are not recorded, transaction logs cannot measure the information needs that users' are unable to express in their search statements (input), and they cannot reflect users' satisfaction with search results (output). As Kurth states, '[the fact] that transaction logs are unable to address such cognitive aspects of on–line searching behaviour is a true limit of the methodology' (Kurth, 1993: 100). Supplementary research, such as questionnaires, protocol analysis and interviews, must be undertaken in order to build a fuller picture of searching behaviour, success and satisfaction."

(Griffiths, J. R., R. J. Hartley, et al., 2002)

Jillian R. Griffiths, R.J. Hartley and Jonathan P. Willson. (2002). "An improved method of studying user–system interaction by combining transaction log analysis and protocol analysis." Information Research 7(4).

TAGS

2002 • characterising users • cognitive actionsdata collectiondata gathering instruments • electronic information resources • end user studiesend-users • information needs • Information Research (journal) • information system evaluation • information-seeking • information-seeking behaviourinterview (research method) • Janet Kinsella • Jillian Griffiths • Jonathan Willson • limitations of quantitative methodologies • Martin Kurth • online systems • open access journalpatterns of usepeer-reviewed journal • Philip Bryant • protocol analysisqualitative dataquestionnaire • Richard Hartley • search and retrieval • search behaviour • search logging • search process • search results • search results satisfaction • search statements • searchersearching and browsing • searching behaviour • searching for information • success and satisfaction • supplementary research • system requirements • talk-aloud comments • think aloud (research method)transaction log analysis • transaction logging • transaction logging datatransaction logsusability testing • user search process • user-based evaluation • user-system interaction

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 AUGUST 2013

Thinking aloud: a method for systematically collecting and analysing data about the design process

"Suppose that you want to understand the design process of architects, the knowledge that they use, the cognitive actions that they take and the strategies they employ. How would you go about this? One obvious possibility is to ask some architects how they design a building. Interestingly enough, they will not find this an easy question to answer. They are used to do their job, not to explain it. If they do try to tell you how they go about their design work, it is quite possible that their account of it will be incomplete or even incorrect, because they construct this account from memory. They may be inclined to describe the design process neatly in terms of the formal design methods that they acquired during their professional training, whereas the real design process deviates from these methods. Psychologists have demonstrated that such accounts are not very reliable. Another possibility is to look at the architects' designs and at their intermediate sketches. However, now you are looking at the products of the thought processes of these architects, and not at the thought processes themselves. What is needed are more direct data on the ongoing thinking processes during working on a design. If you want to know how they arrive at their designs, what they think, what is difficult for them and what is easy, how they reconcile conflicting demands, a different research method is needed.

A good method in this situation is to ask architects to work on a design and to instruct them to think aloud. What they say is recorded and used as data for analysis of the design process. This is a very direct method to gain insight in the knowledge and methods of human problem–solving. The speech and writings are called spoken and written protocols. In this book we will describe a method for systematically collecting and analysing such think aloud protocols. This method can be used by psychologists and other social scientists who want to know more about cognitive processes. It is also an important method for knowledge engineers whose goal is to build a knowledgebased computer system on the basis of human expertise."

(Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard, et al., 1994, pp.1–2)

Maarten W. van Someren, Yvonne F. Barnard and Jacobijn A.C. Sandberg. (1994). "The Think Aloud Method: A Practical Guide to Modelling Cognitive Processes".

TAGS

academic researchanalysing dataarchitectural thoughtcognitive actionscognitive processescognitive psychologycognitive sciencecognitive theoriesconceptual modeldata collection and analysisdata collection techniquesdesign knowledgedesign process • design strategies • design workdirect observationexperimental knowledgeformal design methods • human expertise • knowledge engineer • knowledge-based systems • problem-solvingpsychological analysispsychological modelsresearch methodsketching ideas • social scientists • spoken protocols • task analysis • testing theories • theoretical model • think aloud (research method) • think aloud protocols • thinking processthought process • unreliable evidence • user testinguser-based evaluation • written protocols

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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