"from a sociocultural perspective, learning and development take place in socially and culturally shaped contexts, which are themselves constantly changing; there can be no universal scheme that adequately represents the dynamic interaction between the external and the internal aspects of development."
(Annemarie Sullivan Palincsar, p.354)
2). Palincsar, S. 1998. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, pp. 345-375.
"The Ubiquity add-on for Firefox is a 'command line interface for the web'. It enables you to interact with web services like Google search, Twitter, Yelp, Delicious and Gmail, as well as perform searches on content sites like Amazon, Wikipedia and Flickr. Ubiquity enables you to perform specific tasks, like e-mail a link to a Gmail contact, post a tweet or check the weather, all with just a few keystrokes."
(Michael Calore, 24 June 2009, Webmonkey)
"In global campaigns on issues like landmines, trade, medicines or small arms, international non-governmental organisations (NGOs) face dilemmas of control. How much of the management and publicity of a campaign should they keep and how much should they give away?
Interational NGOs (INGOs) are often the intellectual originators of campaigns. They are also some of the few global organisations with the requisite money, sophistication, media expertise and brand recognition to run a global campaign. For efficiency's sake, they need to drive global campaigns.
In countless NGO communications, civil society heroes from Asia and Africa are presented as dependent second class citizens, defined primarily by their relationship to the international NGO.
Pioneering local campaigners are introduced as an "Oxfam partner" or a "CARE project". There is a colonial echo here in the implication that it is really INGOs who are saving the situation as the primary movers and shakers.
Part of the reason for this kind of post-colonial choreography by INGOs is because they are still required to be the visual mediators of the poor world to the rich world.
In Western society, our INGOs are inter-cultural gatekeepers. They know both worlds and report the one to the other."
(Hugo Slim, 30 Apr 2007)
"'Whirlpool' projects embrace the fact that requirements are volatile. Instead of trying to deliver a system that satisfies 100% of the requirements in one go, the focus is on delivering an agreed subset of the requirements at intervals. Use cases are the building blocks of requirements and provide a convenient basis for risk assessment and prioritising. The riskiest and most significant use cases are tackled first, within the context of a clearly understood architectural vision. Tackling risk early identifies problems before they become too expensive or threatening, and helps lead to more stable architectures. The system evolves as a sequence of increments, each one an enhancement to the already-delivered functionality.
The development process for each increment is founded on the idea of a workflow, consisting of activities. For example. instead of having an analysis stage followed by a design stage, a worker might be engaged in analysis activities and design activities, depending on the job in hand. It is important to recognise that analysis activities focus on the problem space, while design activities focus on the solution space. A good understanding of one part of the problem may well lead to faster progress to design in that area. It is also possible that design activities highlight shortcoming in the analysis or even the requirements, in which case these are amended to reflect the newer (and hopefully better) understanding.
Successive iterations converge on a more complete, correct and consistent model, leading ultimately to implementation and delivery."