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Which clippings match 'Brain' keyword pg.1 of 3
07 JUNE 2015

Ferdinand de Saussure: Place of Language in the Facts of Speech

"In order to separate from the whole of speech the part that belongs to language, we must examine the individual act from which the speaking-circuit can be reconstructed. The act requires the presence of at least two persons; that is the minimum number necessary to complete the circuit. Suppose that two people, A and B, are conversing with each other [see figure 1 below].

Suppose that the opening of the circuit is in A's brain, where mental facts (concepts) are associated with representations of the linguistic sounds (sound-images) that are used for their expression. A given concept unlocks a corresponding sound-image in the brain; this purely psychological phenomenon is followed in turn by a physiological process: the brain transmits an impulse corresponding to the image to the organs used in producing sounds. Then the sound waves travel from the mouth of A to the ear of B: a purely physical process. Next, the circuit continues in B, but the order is reversed: from the ear to the brain, the physiological transmission of the sound-image; in the brain, the psychological association of the image with the corresponding concept. If B then speaks, the new act will follow-from his brain to A's-exactly the same course as the first act and pass through the same successive phases, which I shall diagram as follows [see figure 2 below].

The preceding analysis does not purport to be complete. We might also single out the pure acoustical sensation, the identification of that sensation with the latent sound-image, the muscular image of phonation, etc. I have included only the elements thought to be essential, but the drawing brings out at a glance the distinction between the physical (sound waves), physiological (phonation and audition), and psychological parts (word-images and concepts). Indeed, we should not fail to note that the word-image stands apart from the sound itself and that it is just as psychological as the concept which is associated with it. "

(Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger, Wade Baskin, p.11, 12)

Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger, Wade Baskin (1966). "Course in General Linguistics", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York Toronto London.

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1966 • acoustical sensation • Albert Riedlinger • Albert Sechehaye • audition (linguistics) • audition phonation circuit • brain • Charles Bally • circuitcommunication processcommunication theory • Course in General Linguistics (1966) • dialogic • ear • Ferdinand de Saussurehuman expressionimagelanguagelinguistic philosophy • linguistic sounds • linguistics • mental facts (concepts) • messagemodel of communicationmouth • muscular image of phonation • phonation (linguistics) • phonation and audition • physiological process • physiological transmission • psychological association • psychological phenomenon • sound waves • sound-image • speaking-circuit • speechtheory of communication • Wade Baskin • word-image

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
11 DECEMBER 2012

Dara Ó Briain's Science Club: The Story of the Brain

"Dara traces the brain's journey from a useless organ once ditched by Egyptian embalmers to the centre of everything that makes us human. Science journalist Alok Jha asks whether smart drugs really make you brainier, oceanographer Helen Czerski explores cutting edge therapies allowing the brain to control limbs remotely and materials scientist Mark Miodownik takes apart a smart phone."

(BBC Two, UK)

Fig.1 this animation is from Episode 5 of 6 of Dara Ó Briain's Science Club, Tuesday 04 Dec 2012 at 9pm on BBC Two, voiced by Dara Ó Briain, animated by 12Foot6, Published on YouTube on 5 Dec 2012 by BBC.

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12Foot620122D2D animationAlok Jhaanimated information graphicsanimationBBC TwoBBC2brain • brainier • consciousconsciousness • control limbs • cutting edge therapies • cutting-edge innovationsDara O Briaindissectiondrug takingdrugselectricity • embalming • epileptic • frog • heart • Helen Czerskihippocampushistory of ideas • homunculus • human speciesillustration to visually communicate information • liver • Mark Miodownikmemory • mummification • nervous system • neurosurgeon • organ • physician • reasonscienceScience Club (tv)sequential art • smart drugs • smartphone • spleen • story of sciencesubconscious • surgeon • UKunconsciousvisual representations of scientific concepts • Wilder Penfield

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 NOVEMBER 2012

Creación: stop motion food animation

"Spot hecho en stop motion utilizando alimentos. Producción realizada entre Can Can Club y JPZtudio para la feria Tecnópolis, a traves del Instituto de Cine y Artes Audiovisuales (INCAA)."

(Juan Pablo Zaramella, 2010)

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2010 • Alejo Villarino • alimentos • animationanimatorArgentina • Argentinian • biscuitbrain • Can Can Club • cerealscrackers • Creacion (short film) • foodfruit • INCAA • Instituto de Cine y Artes Audiovisuales • JPZtudio • Juan Pablo Zaramella • nuts • Sergio Pineyro • short film • Sol Rulloni • stop motionstop motion animationvegetablesvisual designvisual literacyvisual metaphorvisual pun

CONTRIBUTOR

Jonathan Hamilton
26 SEPTEMBER 2012

Neurocinematics: The Neuroscience of Film

"This article describes a new method for assessing the effect of a given film on viewers' brain activity. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during free viewing of films, and inter–subject correlation analysis (ISC) was used to assess similarities in the spatiotemporal responses across viewers' brains during movie watching. Our results demonstrate that some films can exert considerable control over brain activity and eye movements. However, this was not the case for all types of motion picture sequences, and the level of control over viewers' brain activity differed as a function of movie content, editing, and directing style. We propose that ISC may be useful to film studies by providing a quantitative neuroscientific assessment of the impact of different styles of filmmaking on viewers' brains, and a valuable method for the film industry to better assess its products. Finally, we suggest that this method brings together two separate and largely unrelated disciplines, cognitive neuroscience and film studies, and may open the way for a new interdisciplinary field of 'neurocinematic' studies."

(Uri Hasson, Ohad Landesman et al.)

Hasson, U., Landesman, O., Knappmeyer, B., Vallines, I., Rubin, N. and Heeger, D. (2008), Neurocinematics: The neuroscience of films. Projections: The Journal for Movies and Mind 2, 1–26.

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Barbara Knappmeyer • brain • brain activity • cognitive control • cognitive film theory • cognitive neuroscience • computational neuroscience • David J. Heeger • directing style • eye movement • eye-trackingfilm editingfilm industryfilm studies • film viewing • fMRI • functional magnetic resonance imaging • Ignacio Vallines • inter-subject correlation • inter-subject correlation analysis • interdisciplinary field • ISC • motion picture sequences • movie content • movie watching • Nava Rubin • neurocinematic studies • neurocinematicsneuroscience • neuroscience and film • neuroscience of film • Ohad Landesman • perception • Projections (journal) • psychophysics • quantitative neuroscientific assessment • similarities • social neuroscience • spatiotemporal responses • styles of filmmaking • Uri Hasson • viewerviewingvisionvisual perception

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 MARCH 2012

The Gestalt Principles

"Gestalt is a psychology term which means 'unified whole'. It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied."

(Spokane Falls Community College)

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abstractionaesthetics • Berlin School • brain • closeness • closurecognitioncomplete formdesigndesign formalismdesign principlesdesign rules • entirety • essence • figure and ground • form and function • form-generating capability • gestalt effect • gestalt principlesgestalt psychology • gestalt theories • gestalt theories of perception • gestalt theory • gestaltism • graphic designgrouping • human eye • illusion • Kurt Koffka • layout designmodernismmodernist design principlesobjectivityperceptionperceptual organisationpictorial systemsprinciplesproximitypsychology • psychology of design • regularity • reificationrepetitionrulessensesshapesimilaritysymmetrytexturetheory of mindunified wholevisual communicationvisual designvisual illusionvisual literacyvisual perceptionvisual recognitionvisual rulewhole formswhole is greater than the sum of the partswhole is other than the sum of the partswhole situation

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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