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Which clippings match 'Ernest Boyer' keyword pg.1 of 2
19 DECEMBER 2015

A History of the Studio-based Learning Model

"Studio-based instruction and learning has become a hot topic in K-12 education today. Knowing the origins of studio-based learning in education, as well as in art and architectural education can provide us with a deeper understanding of the purposes and goals of studio-based methods. Much can be gained by educators to the turn of the century for guidance in translating the new popular studio-based learning model developed in architectural education."

(Jeffery A. Lackney, 2 August 1999)





19th century20th centuryactive learning • aesthetic training • apprentice system • architectural education • art and architectural education • art and design educationatelier modelBauhaus School • charrette • child-centred approach • Columbia University • David Hoff • design problemdesign studio education • design studio model • Donald Schon • Ecole des Beaux Arts • Ernest Boyer • Francis Parker • Friedrich Frobel • history of ideas and learning • Horace Mann • Horace Mann High School • Indiana • integrated curriculum • Jeffery Lackney • John DeweyK-12 • Laboratory School in Chicago • learner-centredlearning by doing • Lee Mitgang • Massachusetts • mastery • Mississippi State University • Parker School in Quincy • pedagogical model • platoon system • Quincy System • studio approach • studio-based instruction • studio-based learning • studio-based learning model • studio-based methods • studio-based model of learning • University of Oregon • William Wirt


Simon Perkins
15 JUNE 2012

Managing interdisciplinarity: a discussion of the contextual review in design research

"Although the debate about disciplinary status has not interrupted the production of innovative design research, as a relatively recent member of academia's 'tribes and territories' (Becher 1989) design is still establishing its disciplinary characteristics as a general research field and a set of specialist sub–fields. There is, for instance, some debate about whether design scholarship should include creative practice and reflection (for a sample of contrasting positions see Bayazit 2004; Downton 2001; Durling 2002; Roth 1999). Since a majority of design issues originate in everyday life individual design research questions are unlikely to fit specific disciplinary boundaries, the idea that design research definitively engages with multiple fields and literatures being widely acknowledged (Poggenpohl et al 2004). These considerations have contributed to the debate as to whether design research should conform to established models from the sciences and humanities or develop its own integral approaches. We suggest, however, that a greater focus on design's applied nature and inherent interdisciplinarity could profitably overtake the quest for disciplinary clarity."

(Carolyn Barnes and Gavin Melles, 2007)

1). Proceedings of 'Emerging Trends in Design Research', the International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) Conference, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 12–15 November 2007


academiaacademic disciplines • applied design research • applied nature of design • applied research • Barbel Tress • Carolyn Barnes • contextual frameworks • contextual review • contextualised application • creative practice and reflection • cross-disciplinary • David Durling • design issuesdesign research • design research questions • design scholarshipdisciplinary boundaries • disciplinary characteristics • disciplinary clarity • disciplinary status • Ernest Boyer • established models • everyday life • Gary Fry • Gavin Melles • general research field • Gunther Tress • higher education • Hilla Becher • IASDR • industry-oriented knowledge • innovative design research • intellectual challenge • interdisciplinarityinterdisciplinary knowledgeInternational Association of Societies of Design Researchknowledgeknowledge production • methods and principles • Mode 1Mode 2 • Mode 2 knowledge production • multifaceted social situations • multiple fields • multiple research fields • narrative case studies • Nigan Bayazit • non-disciplinary knowledge • orthodox disciplinary knowledge • Peter Downton • Praima Chayutsahakij • professional doctorate • reflexive knowledge • researchresearch students • research supervisors • review of literatureRichard Buchanansciences and humanities • set of specialist sub-fields • Sharon Poggenpohl • situated knowledge • sources of knowledge • Susan Roth • Swinburne University of Technology • tribes and territories • vocational foundations


Simon Perkins
14 NOVEMBER 2010

The new definition of scholarship: how will it change the professoriate?

"Several scholars have begun to see change in the definition of scholarship as demanding a change in our understanding of epistemology. Eugene Rice constructs a matrix of knowledge based on dichotomies of active practice vs. reflective observation, and concrete, connected knowing vs. abstract, analytic knowing. He points out that the push for a more concrete, connected way of knowing requires a multidimensional pedagogy. He quotes Cornell West as saying, 'To put it crudely, ideas, words, and language are not mirrors which copy the 'real' or 'objective' world but rather tools with which we cope with 'our' world' (Rice, 1996, p. 16). The stuff of scholarship is all intertwined within itself and connected to real life, not separate from it. The faculty who would engage this pedagogy must have grounding in a rich model of scholarship in order to become what Rice calls a complete scholar:

The complete scholar would have a sense of the way in which different forms of scholarly work interrelate and enrich one another, and would be capable of moving with ease from one scholarly task to another. The tensions between connected knowing and analytical capabilities, on the one hand, and reflection and active practice, on the other, would be nurtured and built upon rather than resisted and minimized (p. 22)."

(Arthur L. Dirks, 4 December 1998)

Rice, R. E. (1996. ). Making a place for the new American scholar (Working paper No. 1). Washington, D.C.: American Association for Higher Education. In Forum on Faculty Roles and Rewards).

Dirks, Arthur L. (1998). The new definition of scholarship: How will it change the professoriate? Published on–line by author ( Bridgewater, Mass. Boston.

Fig.1 A Community Concern, 'Bronx Youth Forum to End School Overcrowding'.



1998 • abstract knowing • active practice • analytic knowing • analytical capabilities • complete scholar • concrete knowing • connected knowing • connected way of knowing • Cornell West • dichotomyepistemologyErnest Boyer • Eugene Rice • faculty members • intertwined • matrix of knowledge • multidimensional pedagogy • objective worldour worldpedagogyreal lifereal worldreflection • reflective observation • scholarly work • scholarship • scholarship model • the definition of scholarship • tools


Simon Perkins
12 OCTOBER 2009

Ernest Boyer's Model of Scholarship

"Boyer (1997) proposed an expanded definition of 'scholarship' within the professorate based on four functions that underlie the Profile of a Quality Faculty Member (1.2.4): discovery, integration, application, and teaching. He argues that, within this framework, all forms of scholarship should be recognized and rewarded, and that this will lead to more personalized and flexible criteria for gaining tenure. He feels that, too often faculty members wrestle with conflicting obligations that leave little time to focus on their teaching role. Boyer proposes using 'creativity contracts' that emphasize quality teaching and individualized professional development. He recommends that this model be based upon the life patterns of individuals and their passions.

The first element of Boyer's model, discovery, is the one most closely aligned with traditional research. Discovery contributes not only to the stock of human knowledge but also to the intellectual climate of a college or university. He stresses that new research contributions are critical to the vitality of the academic environment, and that his model does not diminish the value of discovery scholarship.

The second element, integration, focuses on making connections across disciplines. One interprets one's own research so that it is useful beyond one's own disciplinary boundaries and can be integrated into a larger body of knowledge. He stresses that the rapid pace of societal change within a global economy have elevated the importance of this form of scholarship.

The third element, application, focuses on using research findings and innovations to remedy societal problems. Included in this category are service activities that are specifically tied to one's field of knowledge and professional activities. Beneficiaries of these activities include commercial entities, non–profit organizations, and professional associations.

Finally, Boyer considers teaching as a central element of scholarship. Too often teaching is viewed as a routine function and is often not the focus of professional development. Many professors state that they are primarily interested in teaching, but they feel that their institutions do not value or reward excellence in teaching (Borra, 2001). The academic community continues to emphasize and assign high value to faculty members' involvement in activities other than teaching (Royeen, 1999)."

Boyer, E. L. (1997). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey–Bass.

Royeen, C. B. (1999). Scholarship revisited: Expanding horizons and guidelines for evaluation of the scholarship of teaching. In P. A. Crist (Ed.), Innovations in occupational therapy education. Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.



discoveryErnest Boyer • forms of scholarship • integrationpedagogyresearchscholarship • scholarship of application • scholarship of discovery • scholarship of integrationscholarship of teachingteachingtheory buildingtraining


Simon Perkins
20 JANUARY 2006

Ernest Boyers: Priorities Of The Professoriate

Eileen Herteis
Ernest Boyer's Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate (1990) was written, in part, to put an end to the false polarity between teaching and research in the academy and to recognise and reward the vast array of faculty responsibilities. Boyer offered a new paradigm of scholarship. He sought to overturn the dominant view that "to be a scholar is to be a researcher and publication is the primary yardstick by which scholarly productivity is measured."

Many have embraced Boyer's work, calling it seminal, and crediting him with rejuvenating the concept of scholarship by validating teaching and service as scholarly activities. Their endorsement, especially with respect to the scholarship of teaching, is reflected internationally in university mission statements, the movement towards certification in university teaching, and the ever–growing interest in teaching portfolios.

Boyer uses the following categories to describe the responsibilities of being an academic:

  • Scholarship of discovery;
  • Scholarship of integration;
  • Scholarship of application;
  • Scholarship of teaching.


academicErnest Boyerlecturerportfolio • professoriate • researchscholarshipteaching

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