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16 NOVEMBER 2014

In cognitive linguistics metaphors are not simply stylistic devices but processes which enable understanding through the mapping of source domains onto target domains

"The conception of metaphor in cognitive linguistics contradicts the conception of metaphor in literary studies in fundamental ways: Metaphor is not a stylistic device, but an experiential and cognitive process, in which we use properties, relations, and entities that characterize one domain of experience and/or knowledge (source domain) to understand, think, plan, and talk about a second domain (target domain) that is different in kind from the first. [7]

According to CMT [conceptual metaphor theory], source domains come from everyday bodily perception and movement. They are grounded in embodied experience (grounding hypothesis). Source domains are needed to make sense of target domains. By definition, a conceptual metaphor is a unidirectional mapping across cognitive domains. The mappings are tightly structured and structure from a source domain is (partially) mapped onto a target domain. The mapping is highly selective, as there are ontological correspondences according to which entities in the source domain (agents, objects, trajectories and so forth) systematically correspond to entities in the target domain. The point is, that we do not copy structure from SD [source domains] to TD [target domains], but we import whole sets of knowledge / inferences / entailments from the source domain into the target domain. The mapping does not work according to an arbitrary rule, but it is a tightly packed, highly selective and constrained process that allows us to reason about abstract domains. [7]"

(Alexandra Jandausch, 2012)

[7] Lakoff, George (1997): "Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind". Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jandausch, A. (2012). "Conceptual Metaphor Theory and the Conceptualization of Music". 5th International Conference of Students of Systematic Musicology. Montreal, Canada.

Fig.1. The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, Passive Smoking: Shotgun [http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/the_roy_castle_lung_cancer_foundation_passive_smoking_shotgun].

[The source domain in the following image refers to the concept of a shotgun, which through its mapping onto the target domain of the cigarettes communicates the idea that smoking kills.]

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TAGS

2012 • abstract conceptual relations • Alexandra Jandausch • analogue correspondence • argument is war • automated metaphorical mappings • basic metaphor theory • bodily movement • bodily perception • cognitive domain • cognitive linguistics • cognitive process • conceptual correspondence • conceptual domainconceptual metaphor • conceptual metaphor theory • conceptualisation of music • cross-modal metaphor • domain of experience • domain of knowledge • embodied experience • experiential process • Friedemann Pulvermuller • George Lakoff • Gilles Fauconnier • grounding hypothesis • image schema theory • image schemas • inference • inference patterns • Jay Seitz • Jean Mandler • literary studies • love is a journey • mapping • mappings • Mark Johnson • Mark Turner • metaphor • metaphoric relations • Michael Tomasello • mnemonic • movement-movement metaphor • musicology • ontological correspondence • patterns of semantic change • perceptual-affective metaphor • perceptual-perceptual metaphor • polysemyrepresentational thinkingrepresentational thinking expressed in metaphors • systematic correspondence • target-domain as source-domain • target-domain is source-domain • theories are buildings • theory of music • unconscious metaphorical mappings • unidirectional mapping • University of Cologne • Vittorio Gallese

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 NOVEMBER 2013

TechNyou: Critical Thinking

"The resource covers basic logic and faulty arguments, developing student's critical thinking skills. Suitable for year 8–10, focused on science issues, the module can be adapted to suit classroom plans."

"TechNyou was established to meet a growing community need for balanced and factual information on emerging technologies. We are funded by the Australian Government Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE). We operate in partnership with the University of Melbourne, where our office is based."

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2011animated presentationAustralian Government • betting system • biasBlaise PascalBridge8 • broken logic • causal modes of comprehensioncausation • certainty • coincidenceconfidenceconsequences • counter-argument • critical thinkingdeceptiondecision makingDepartment of Industry Innovation Science Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE) • does not follow • emerging technologiesevidence-based argumentexpert advice • factual information • fallacious arguments • fallacy • false dilemma • faulty arguments • formal fallacy • forms of logic • gamblers fallacy • gamblinggullibility • head scratching questions • human behaviour • identify patterns • inference • informal fallacy • irrefutable data • James Hutson • logical argument • logical fallacylogical rationalitylogical rules of inferencelogical structurelogical-analytical paradigm • logically impossible • logically true • mathematical conceptsmathematical patternmathematicsmental tricksMike Mcraemisleadingmisunderstandingnon sequituropinionoversimplificationpatternspatterns of meaning • Pierre de Fermat • play the ball not the player • precautionary principle • precautionary tale • predictions • premise • probabilistic outcomes • probability • public informationreckon • repeated observations • risk • rules of logic • science issuessensemaking • straw-man arguments • TechNyou • tertiary education • theoriesthinking skillstrustunethical behaviourUniversity of Melbourne

CONTRIBUTOR

Liam Birtles
29 MARCH 2013

Abductive Reasoning as a Way of Worldmaking

"What is the function of abductive inference? For [Charles Sanders] Peirce it is 'the process of forming an explanatory hypothesis. It is the only logical operation which introduces any new idea; for induction does nothing but determine a value, and deduction merely evolves the necessary consequences of a pure hypothesis. Deduction proves that something must be; induction shows that something actually is operative; abduction merely suggests that something may be' (CP 5.171, cf 1991a, p.333). Abduction may thus be conceived of as a principle that allows us to reconstruct how conceptual order is achieved through the imposition of a hypothesis (in the form of a minimal theory, an idea, a rule or a law–like hypothesis) – which inaugurates constructivist thinking. Here I can only hint at the great variability of this schema; it enables us to bridge the traditional gap between the arts and the sciences because it can be used as a model both of explanation and of understanding."

(Hans Rudi Fischer, pp. 368, 2001)

Peirce, Charles Sanders (CP). (1931–35, 1958) "Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce". Bd. I–VI (1931–34) ed by Ch. Hartshorne and P. Weiss. Vol. VII–VIII (1958) ed. By A.W. Burks. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1991a), Naturordnung und Zeichenprozeß. Schriften über Semiotik und Naturphilosophie. Hrsg. und eingeleitet von Helmut Pape. Frankfurt/Main, Suhrkamp.

Foundations of Science, special issue on "The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science", edited by A. Riegler, 2001, vol. 6, no.4: 361–383. "Abductive Reasoning as a Way of Worldmaking", Hans Rudi Fischer, Heidelberger Institut für systemische Forschung und Therapie, Kussmaulstr. 10, D–69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

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TAGS

2001 • abduction • abductive inference • abductive reasoningarts and sciencesCharles Sanders Peirceconstructivismdeductive reasoning • explanatory hypothesis • Foundations of Science (academic journal) • Hans Fischer • hermeneutical procedures • hermeneuticshypothesisinductive reasoninginferenceinterpretation of experience • knowing as inferring • knowledge of the world • language gameslogical rationalitylogical rules of inferencelogical-analytical paradigm • logically false • Ludwig Wittgenstein • manufacturing of knowledge • material environment • paralogical reasoning • paralogism • paralogy • philosophical construction • praxis of living • rationalityreasoning • retroduction • rule system • rule-following • rules of thought • synthetic thinking • traditional logic • worldmaking

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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