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05 JULY 2014

A Feminist Analysis of the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty

Abstract: "Drawing from several areas of research, this thesis explores the ways in which Dove's Campaign for Real Beauty appropriates feminist themes to sell beauty products, to the detriment of female consumers. Advertising and marketing have long held the power to create, shape, and reinforce cultural norms, and for years, advertisers have been able to propagate and strengthen gender stereotypes. Though there has been a push since the late 1990s to stem the flow of sexist and potentially dangerous advertising messages about women's bodies, ads still disseminate harmful messages that contribute to the further sexualization and oppression of women in the United States. Dove is just one of the many female–targeted brands that claim to hold progressive, woman–positive ideals, while still selling products intended to make women more beautiful–supposedly the ultimate goal for any modern female. While the campaign professes a desire to increase confidence and self–esteem for women and girls around the globe, it promotes a post–feminist, consumerist agenda that actually reinforces what Naomi Wolf titled 'the beauty myth'. Linguistic and visual analyses of Dove's print and viral marketing tactics within the contexts of advertising, feminism, and consumer culture reveal that instead of 'redefining' beauty, the Dove campaign is, in actuality, reinforcing decades–old ideology about women's appearance and status in society."

(Caitlin McCleary, 2014)

McCleary, Caitlin M., "A Not–So–Beautiful Campaign: A Feminist Analysis of the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty" (2014). University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_chanhonoproj/1691

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TAGS

2013advertising campaignanxietyappropriationbeauty industrybeauty productsbody imageco-optionconsumer culturecultural normsdepictions of womendissertationDove (brand) • Dove Real Beauty Sketches (2013) • drawingemotional responseemotive manipulationempowerment themeevocative advertisingfemale consumerfemale-targeted brandsfeminist analysisfeminist themesgender stereotypesgendered brands • honours thesis • marketing campaign • Naomi Wolf • physical appearancepost-feminist agenda • real beauty • Real Beauty (campaign) • redefining beauty • self-criticism • self-esteemself-perceptionsexualisation • sketch artist • sketching • The Beauty Myth (1990) • Unilever • University of Tennessee • viralviral adviral advertisingviral marketing tactics

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
09 JUNE 2013

Sketch-thinking: the processes of 'seeing as' and 'seeing that'

"Sketches are obviously pictorial, for they refer to shape and orientation, and often to approximate size even if they maintain a varying degree of abstractness. Yet it is impossible to confirm that there is a direct one–to–one correspondence between shapes and figures on paper and the images they stand for. It is therefore proposed to refer to the (pictorial) reasoning evident in interactive imagery at the time of sketching as consisting of two modalities. The designer is 'seeing as' when he or she is using figural, or 'gestalt' argumentation while 'sketch–thinking'. When 'seeing that', the designer advances no figural arguments pertaining to the entity that is being designed. The process of sketching is a systematic dialectics between the 'seeing as' and 'seeing that' reasoning modalities. To examine this proposition, design moves and arguments were inspected as they are established through protocol analysis. The notion of 'seeing as' and 'seeing that' will be further elucidated as we proceed, so as to best exploit documentation from the protocols."

(Gabriela Goldschmidt 1991, p.131)

Goldschmidt, G. (1991). "The dialectics of sketching." Creativity Research Journal, Routledge 4(2): 123–143.

Fig.1 Donald Owen Colley [http://buttnekkiddoodles.com/2012/12/26/knockin–about–chicago/]

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TAGS

1991abstract thinking • abstractness • concept developmentconcept generationconceptual schemeconceptualisation • concrete thinking • creativity research • Creativity Research Journal • design • design reasoning • design thinkingdrawingdrawing as enquiry • drawing research • drawing studiesdrawing study • figural • figural arguments • Gabriela Goldschmidt • gestalt argumentation • gestalt principlesidea generationinteractive imagery • Israel Institute of Technology • pictorial reasoning • problem-solvingprotocol analysis • reasoning modalities • reflexive technology • seeingseeing asseeing that • sequence of design moves • shape and orientation • sketch-thinkingsketchessketchingsketching ideas • systematic dialectics • visual thinking

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
26 MARCH 2013

Drawing as a conversation which prompts new imaginings

"Perception of external sources of inspiration prompts new imaginings. Research on the role of externalisations in design thinking has concentrated on the role of sketching[14]. Schön[15] has shown that for many architects, sketching is an essential part of creative design, and creation is driven by making and perceiving sketches; Schön characterises design as an interactive conversation between mind and sketch. Designers directly appreciate different types of information in their own sketches[16], alternating between seeing that and seeing as[17]. Ambiguity in sketches facilitates reinterpretation triggered by dissatisfaction with the current design[18]. For designers who make active use of sources of inspiration in designing, they play a similar role to designers' own sketches."

(Claudia Eckerta, Martin Stacey, p.526, 2000, Design Studies)

[14] Purcell, A T and Gero, J S 'Drawings and the design process' Design Studies Vol 19 (1998) pp 389–430
[15] Schön, D A The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action Basic Books, New York (1983)
[16] Schön, D A and Wiggins, G 'Kinds of seeing and their functions in designing' Design Studies Vol 13 (1992) pp 135–156 [17] Gabriela Goldschmidt 'The dialectics of sketching' Creativity Research Journal Vol 4 (1991) pp 123–143 [https://blog.itu.dk/DIND–E2010/files/2010/10/goldsmidt_dialectics_paper.pdf]
[18] McFadzean, J, Cross, N G and Johnson, J H 'Notation and Cognition in Conceptual Sketching' in Proceedings, VR'99 Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design MIT Press, Cambridge MA (1999)

Claudia Eckerta, Martin Stacey (2000). "Sources of inspiration: a language of design", Design Studies, Volume 21, Issue 5, September 2000, Pages 523–538

TAGS

2000architectsClaudia Eckert • conceptual prompt • conversation with the situationcreative designcritical investigationdesign inspirationdesign languagedesign methodDesign Studies (journal)design thinkingdesigningDonald Schondoodlingdrawing • drawing experiments • drawing ideasdrawing studyimagining • inspiration prompts • interactive conversation • knitwear design • making sketches • Martin Stacey • new imaginings • reinterpretationseeing and doingseeing asseeing thatshared cultural referencesketchingsources of inspirationthinking through drawingthinking toolstriggering ideasvisual problem-solving • visual prompt • visual study

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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