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Which clippings match 'Transmitter' keyword pg.1 of 1
15 MARCH 2011

A simple abstract model of human communication

"One of the first designs of the information theory is the model of communication by Shannon and Weaver. Claude Shannon, an engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories, worked with Warren Weaver on the classic book 'The mathematical theory of communication'. In this work Shannon and Weaver sought to identify the quickest and most efficient way to get a message from one point to another. Their goal was to discover how communication messages could be converted into electronic signals most efficiently, and how those signals could be transmitted with a minimum of error. In studying this, Shannon and Weaver developed a mechanical and mathematical model of communication, known as the 'Shannon and Weaver model of communication'. ...

Shannon and Weaver broadly defined communication as 'all of the procedures by which one mind may affect another'. Their communication model consisted of an information source: the source's message, a transmitter, a signal, and a receiver: the receiver's message, and a destination. Eventually, the standard communication model featured the source or encoder, who encodes a message by translating an idea into a code in terms of bits. A code is a language or other set of symbols or signs that can be used to transmit a thought through one or more channels to elicit a response in a receiver or decoder. Shannon and Weaver also included the factor noise into the model. The study conducted by Shannon and Weaver was motivated by the desire to increase the efficiency and accuracy or fidelity of transmission and reception. Efficiency refers to the bits of information per second that can be sent and received. Accuracy is the extent to which signals of information can be understood. In this sense, accuracy refers more to clear reception than to the meaning of message. This engineering model asks quite different questions than do other approaches to human communication research."

(Communication Studies, University of Twente)

Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Hawes, L.C. (1975). Pragmatics of analoguing: Theory and model construction in communication. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.

Fig.1 Mathematical (information) model of communication.



abstract modelabstractionaccuracyBell LabsBell Telephone LaboratoriesClaude Shannon • communicating system • communicationcommunication processcommunication theorydisorderefficiencyentropyfidelity • human communication research • information technologyinformation theorymeaning makingmessagemodel of communicationnoise • output • pioneeringpredictabilityrandomness • receiver • reception • redundancysignalsymbolsystems approachsystems theorytheory of communication • transmission • transmission model of communicationtransmitter • University of Twente • Warren Weaver


Simon Perkins
19 MAY 2007

Mp3 Player With Built-in FM Transmitter

The GH–KANA–GT series of mp3 players incorporates an FM transmitter so that you can host your own pirate radio station from inside the house, car, etc. The transmitter is enabled through replacing the player's headphones with a small antenna (plugged into headphone socket). The player that was created by the Japanese company Green House comes with 1GB of flash memory and support for both mp3 and wma digital music files.



antenna • broadcastFM • GH-KANA-GT • Green House • Japanlistening experiencemedia devicesmedia playermp3musicmusic player • pirate • player • radiotransmitter
17 JUNE 2006

Mini-FM: Toward Polymorphous Radio

Tetsuo Kogawa
The birth of mini–FM is related to the peculiar situation of radio in Japan. ...

Article 4 in the Radio Regulations Book. It permits transmitting without a license if the power is very weak and is intended to accommodate wireless microphones and remote–control toys. ...

At the beginning, I was dubious about the power of this level of transmission. During several tests of small ready–made FM transmitters, however, we found that some of them could cover a half–mile radius. Presumably, the sensitivity of radio receivers had increased beyond the Ministry's estimation when they established the regulation in the 1950s.

The boom was fantastic, in a sense, but it puzzled us. We had intended to establish a free radio station, not to transmit a one–way performance that disregarded listeners as most stations did. During the boom, most mini–FM stations were able to communicate to a handful of people only. Many of these stations seemed to us be naively copying professional radio studio work. To the contrary, we paid attention to constant and serious listeners. We wanted to provide a community of people with alternative information on politics and social change.

The radio station that my students and I had started on the campus re–established itself in the centre of Tokyo when the students finished school in 1983. The new station was called Radio Home Run. Every day, from 8 PM to midnight, one or two groups aired talk or music programmes. Themes depended on who was host and who were guests. The members always invited new guests who were involved in political or cultural activism. Also, listeners who lived close to the station hesitantly began to visit. To repeat the telephone number during each programme was our basic policy. Guests sometimes recorded cassette tapes of our programmes and let their friends listen. Radio Home Run quickly became a meeting place for students, activists, artists, workers, owners of small shops, local politicians, men, women and the elderly.

Theoretically, I had argued that mini–FM stations might be linked together to extend the transmission/reception area. Since the cost of each unit is cheap, one could have a number of radio sets and transmitters to relay to each other quite inexpensively. Radio Home Run was not so eager to do this but some stations succeeded in establishing a very sophisticated network to link together and extend their service areas.[5] Through a number of experiments to remodel the transmitting system, create programmes and pursue a new way of getting together, we came to the conclusion at Radio Home Run that we must work within a half–mile service area. Tokyo is densely populated so even a half–mile area has at least ten thousand inhabitants. This meant that mini–FM could function as community radio. Moreover, we realised that in the process of transmitting we were more conscious of our members than (possible) listeners. The action of transmitting together changed our relationships and feelings in a way that seemed distinct from the effects of other collective actions that did not involve transmitting. Further, we surmised that relationships differed because we were narrowcasting rather than broadcasting. We decided it had something to do with the limited area of our transmission signal.


activismbroadcastFMfreeJapan • Kogawa • mini-FM • narrowcastingnetwork • polymorphy • radio • Radio Home Run • radio stationTokyotransmitter

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