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Which clippings match 'Print And Digital' keyword pg.1 of 1
31 JULY 2013

Was Ways of Seeing the first pre-digital book?

"Everyone is talking about the way in which digital media is destabilizing print. I thought it was interesting to choose the reverse scenario: something that started digital but found its real audience in print. Ways of Seeing started as a four–part television series on the BBC in England conceived of and written by art critic John Berger. Berger was reacting specifically to the traditional connoisseurship of Kenneth Clark in the Civilisation series, another famous television program, which inscribed the canonical march of Western culture in heroic terms. As a critique of Clark, Berger created a popular reading of the icons of western art not as aesthetic objects, but deeply cultural artifacts that reveal, upon close 'reading', the limitation, prejudice, bias, and obsession of the culture from which they sprang.

This form of cultural criticism was established in the Universities, especially Marxist leaning polytechnics, but had never before had such a popular airing. The idea that classic paintings could be decoded to reveal social facts–and in fact Berger compared them to modern advertising–was heretical and his work was met with incredulity and anger in the hallowed halls of University Art History departments around the country, But Berger's position, especially his proto–feminist critique of female nudes, would grow to become the dominant form of art criticism in the years ahead.

The television program had moderate success but shortly after it aired Berger joined with producer Mike Dibb and graphic designer Richard Hollis to produce a printed version of the televised series. Clark had also produced a book to accompany Civilisation: a huge, lavish, full–color coffee table monster that must have weighted 10 kilos. In contrast Berger, Dibb and Hollis produced a slim paperback, 127 x 203mm, of only 166 pages. Even more radical, the book was produced in black + white, reducing the famous art to mere notations on standard, uncoated paper of a trade book. It was published by the BBC Books under the Pelican Books imprint, a division of the venerable Penguin Press organized to publish books to educate rather than entertain the reading public.

Even more striking was the book's design. Hollis starts the text of the first essay on the cover: 'Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognizes before it can speak.' This simple typographic trick gives the book both a certain modesty (saves on pages) and an urgency (no time to waste). Starting on the outside also suggests a digital quality, the content is broadcast to the reader even as they pass the shelf.

The interior is equally unusual. Hollis set the entire book in a bold sans serif font, a very unlikely choice and aggressively un–civilized. There is no nod to classicism, the book is an entirely modern form. The text is broken down into short bursts, usually no more than a paragraph coupled with a visual example. Again reflecting its origin as a televisual experience the text and images work simultaneously, one form leveraging the other. There are five such text–and–image essays on everything from renaissance nudes to modern advertising. But Berger also adds for entirely visual essays. He assembles a series of examples that by the power of his selection and through their aggressive juxtaposition, he makes his thesis without any words at all. In so doing he presages the development of the curated playlist as a predominant contemporary form and creates the first pre–digital book."

(Michael Rock, 2011, 2x4)

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TAGS

2011 • 2x4 • aesthetic objectsart criticismart history • BBC Books • BBC Twoblack and white • canonical march • Civilisation (series) • contemporary form • cultural artefactscultural criticism • curated playlist • destabilising force • digital media • digital quality • educate rather than entertain • end of print • famous art • female nudes • heroic terms • John Bergerjuxtaposition • Kenneth Clark • Michael Rock • Mike Dibb • modern advertising • modern form • modestypaperback • Pelican Books • Penguin Random Housepolytechnic • pre-digital book • print and digitalprinted version • proto-feminist critique • renaissance nudes • Richard Hollis • sans-serif typeface • seeing comes before words • short formsocial factstelevision programmetelevision seriestelevisual experiencetext and image • trade book • typographic trick • uncoated paper • urgency • visual culturevisual essayWays of Seeingwestern artWestern culture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 FEBRUARY 2013

How will the future objects and methods of graphic design and the industries it serves be reconfigured?

Thursday 07 and Friday 08 March 2013, Open, 20 Bank Plain, Norwich, Norfolk, NR2 4SF

"A two day symposium organised by Norwich University of the Arts that will explore the relationship between print and digital, and the coexistence of media in a wider sense; how they combine, and how they provide unique opportunities.

As the design industry embraces dramatic changes in technology, the Cowbird Symposium will look at graphic design as an output, a practice and a profession, exploring the relationships between print and screen–based communication. Guest speakers, all leading thinkers and practitioners themselves, will be invited to comment on the future of the distributed text–the book, magazine, newspaper and poster, as well as the challenge and opportunity afforded by new technologies, tablets, e–readers, smart phones, augmented reality, social media, digital displays, and new practices, crowdsourcing, coding, data sharing, and social reading."

(Norwich University of the Arts)

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TAGS

2013augmented realitybook formcoding • coexistence of media • Cowbird Symposium • crowdsourcingdata sharingdesign for printdesign industrydigital displaysdiscourse and practice • distributed text • e-readergraphic designgraphic design discoursegraphic design practice • graphic design profession • magazine form • new practicesnew technologiesnewspaper • Norwich University of the Arts • objects and methods • poster designprint and digital • screen-based communication • smart phonesocial mediasocial readingsymposiumtabletstechnological changethe future of digital content • the future of graphic design • the future of the bookUK

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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