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Which clippings match 'Iterative Cycle' keyword pg.1 of 1
31 MARCH 2013

Qualitative research primarily is inductive in its procedures

"qualitative inquiry is inductive and often iterative in that the evaluator may go through repeated cycles of data collection and analysis to generate hypotheses inductively from the data. These hypotheses, in turn, need to be tested by further data collection and analysis. The researcher starts with a broad research question, such as 'What effects will information systems engendered by reforms in the UK's National Health Service have on relative power and status among clinical and administrative staff in a teaching hospital?' [48].The researcher narrows the study by continually posing increasingly specific questions and attempting to answer them through data already collected and through new data collected for that purpose. These questions cannot all be anticipated in advance. As the evaluator starts to see patterns, or discovers behavior that seems difficult to understand, new questions arise. The process is one of generating hypotheses and explanations from the data, testing them, and modifying them accordingly. New hypotheses may require new data, and, consequently, potential changes in the research design."

(Bonnie Kaplan and Joseph A. Maxwell, p.38, 2005)

Kaplan, B. and J. Maxwell (2005). Qualitative Research Methods for Evaluating Computer Information Systems. Evaluating the Organizational Impact of Healthcare Information Systems. J. Anderson and C. Aydin. New York, Springer: 30–55.


Bonnie Kaplandata analysisdata collectiondata collection and analysis • generating explanations • generating hypotheses • hypothesishypothesis testinginductive enquiryinductive proceduresinductive reasoningiterative cycleJoseph Maxwellpatterns of meaning • qualitative enquiry • qualitative researchresearch designresearch questionresearcher • specific questions


Simon Perkins
19 JANUARY 2013

Hermeneutics: where meaning is inter-subjectively created

"Hermeneutic theory is a member of the social subjectivist paradigm where meaning is inter–subjectively created, in contrast to the empirical universe of assumed scientific realism (Berthon et al. 2002). Other approaches within this paradigm are social phenomenology and ethnography. As part of the interpretative research family, hermeneutics focuses on the significance that an aspect of reality takes on for the people under study. Hermeneutics focuses on defining shared linguistic meaning for a representation or symbol.

In order to reach shared understanding as proposed in hermeneutic theory, subjects must have access to shared linguistic and interpretative resources (Marshall et al. 2001). However, hermeneutic theory also posits that linguistic meaning is likely open to infinite interpretation and reinterpretation due to the interpretative ambiguity coming from presuppositions, to the conditions of usage different from authorial intention, and to the evolution of words (Marshall et al. 2001).

Due to its interpretive nature, hermeneutics cannot be approached using a pre–determined set of criteria that is applied in a mechanical fashion (Klein et al. 1999). However, a meta–principal [sic], known as the hermeneutic circle, guides the hermeneutic approach where the process of understanding moves from parts of a whole to a global understanding of the whole and back to individual parts in an iterative manner (Klein et al. 1999). This meta–principal allows the development of a complex whole of shared meanings between subjects, or between researchers and their subjects (Klein et al. 1999).

Other co–existing principles that may help assure rigorous interpretive analysis involve: a) understanding the subject according to its social and historical context, b) assessing the historical social construction between the researcher and the subject, c) relating ideographic details to general theoretical concepts through abstraction and generalization, d) being sensitive to potential pre–conceptual theoretical contradictions between research design and actual findings, e) being aware of possible multiple interpretations among participants for a given sequence of events, and f) being conscious of potential biases or systematic distortions in the subject's narratives (Klein et al. 1999)."

(IS Theory, 15 November 2011, Information Systems PhD Preparation Program of the Marriott School of Management of Brigham Young University)


abstraction and generalisation • biases • Brigham Young University • empirical universe • ethnography • evolution of words • global understanding • Heinz Klein • hermeneutic approach • hermeneutic circlehermeneutic theoryhermeneuticshermeneutische Spiralehermeneutischer Zirkel • historical social construction • ideographic details • infinite interpretation • inter-subjective • interpretation • interpretative ambiguity • interpretive nature • interpretive researchintersubjectivityiterative cycle • iterative manner • linguistic meaning • meaning • meta-principle • Michael Myers • multiple interpretations • Nick Marshall • phenomenology • pre-conceptual theoretical contradictions • presuppositions • realityreflexivityreinterpretation • rigorous interpretive analysis • scientific realism • shared interpretative resources • shared linguistic • shared linguistic meaning • shared meaningsshared understanding • social and historical context • social phenomenology • social subjectivism • social subjectivist paradigm • systematic distortions • theoretical concepts • theoretical contradictions • Tim Brady • understanding


Simon Perkins
17 DECEMBER 2012

Invention is the result of creative experimentation and synthesis

"Why waste time on expensive experiments when the right answer is obvious? The flaw in this thinking is that creativity is an iterative process in which you synthesize the final result from a variety of sources and thousands of potential solutions. It is not purely a deductive process with a single right answer.

When you fail to experiment broadly, you are building your solution from an anemic set of mental and technical resources. It is the equivalent of trying to design a bridge when the only material you've tested is paper. You can certainly build a bridge, but it will not be nearly as good compared to someone who experimented with a broad range of materials and construction techniques including steel or concrete."

(Daniel Cook, 16 August 2010)



ild a bridge • conceptualisationconstruction techniquescreative processcreativity • design a bridge • design methoddesign process • experiment broadly • experimental enquiryexperimental investigation • experimental research • experimental techniquesexperimental thinkingexperimental workexperimentation • experiments • inventioniterative cycleiterative design processmethods for design practice • potential solutions • right answer • single right answer • synthesise knowledgetestingtheory building • variety of sources • visualising the creative process


Simon Perkins

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