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Which clippings match 'Metaphoric Reference' keyword pg.1 of 1
05 JULY 2014

An animated primer on the use of metaphors

"How do metaphors help us better understand the world? And, what makes a good metaphor? Explore these questions with writers like Langston Hughes and Carl Sandburg, who have mastered the art of bringing a scene or emotion to life."

(Jane Hirshfield and Ben Pearce, TED–Ed)

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TAGS

Ben Pearce • Carl Sandburg • choice of wordscomprehending languagedepiction • depictions of real-life • figurative languagehaikuindirect reference • Jane Hirshfield • Langston Hughes • literary devices • literary technique • mental imagemetaphormetaphoric referencemetaphorical representationpoetic function • simile • TED-Edthoughts and feelingsuse of words

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
31 MAY 2013

Yossarian Lives!: a Metaphorical Search Engine

"We have created a metaphorical search engine. Our search algorithms generate results that assist people in the creation of new knowledge by returning disparate, but potentially metaphorically related information. These are the types of insights that are valuable for people working at the edges of their knowledge field. This is an immensely powerful creative tool for use by anyone who is looking to generate new ideas or see their problem or topic in a whole new light.

Yossarian is the main character of Joseph Heller's novel 'Catch–22.' Our work is highlighting the Catch–22 of current search and personalization algorithms, in that their use both simultaneously helps us through access to existing knowledge, and hurts us through the reinforcement of that same knowledge. In finding new and innovative search solutions to this problem, we declare that Yossarian Lives!"

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TAGS

Catch-22 • conceptual metaphorconstellation of connectionsconstellations metaphor • creative search • disparatedivergent conceptsdivergent thinkingideas • innovative search solution • Joseph Heller • knowledge fieldmetaphormetaphoricmetaphoric reference • metaphorical • metaphorical search • metaphorical search engine • metaphorically • metaphorically related • metaphorics • personalisation algorithm • searchsearch algorithmsearch enginesearch servicesearch toolsimilitude • Yossarian Lives

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 MAY 2013

Can Histories Be True? Narrativism, Positivism, and the MetaphoricalTurn

"Narrativism, as represented by Hayden White and Frank Ankersmit, can fruitfully be analyzed as an inversion of two brands of positivism. First, narrativist epistemology can be regarded as an inversion of empiricism. Its thesis that narratives function as metaphors which do not possess a cognitive content is built on an empiricist, 'picture view' of knowledge. Moreover, all the non–cognitive aspects attributed as such are dependent on this picture theory of knowledge and a picture theory of representation. Most of the epistemological characteristics that White and Ankersmit attribute to historical narratives therefore share the problems of this picture theory.

The article's second thesis is that the theories of narrative explanation can also fruitfully be analyzed as inversions of positivist covering–law theory. Ankersmit's brand of narrativism is the most radical in this respect because it posits an opposition between narrative and causal modes of comprehension while simultaneously eliminating causality from narrativist historical understanding. White's brand of narrativism is more of a hybrid than is Ankersmit's as far as its theory of explanation is concerned; nevertheless, it can also be fruitfully interpreted as an inversion of covering–law theory, replacing it by an indefinite multitude of explanatory strategies.

Most of the striking characteristics of both White's and Ankersmit's narrativism pre–suppose positivism in these two senses, especially their claim that historical narratives have a metaphorical structure and therefore no truth–value. These claims are had to reconcile with the factual characteristics of debates by historians; this problem can be tracked down to the absence in 'metaphorical' narrativism of a conceptual connection between historical narratives and historical research."

(Chris Lorenz, 1998, Wiley–Blackwell)

Lorenz, C. (1998). "Can Histories Be True? Narrativism, Positivism, and the "MetaphoricalTurn"." History and Theory 37(3): 309–329.

TAGS

causal modes of comprehensioncausality • cognitive content • conceptual connection • empiricism • emplotment • explanatory strategy • factual characteristics • Frank Ankersmit • Hayden White • historical chronicles • historical narrative • historical narrativeshistorical researchhistorical understandinghistoriesknowledge • metahistory • metanarrativemetaphormetaphoric reference • metaphorical narrativism • metaphorical representation • metaphorical structure • metaphorical turn • narrative explanation • narratives • narrativism • narrativist epistemology • picture theory • picture view of knowledge • positivismrepresentation • storied ways of communicating • storied ways of knowing • truth claims • truth-value

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 DECEMBER 2012

Theorizing Advertising and Promotion

"The visual rhetoric of ads is not, then, confined to the copy. An ad is an argument, a persuasive communication. Every part of it must support the main argument, must be persuasively suggestive. A press ad for Retinol Activ Pur face cream used a clever visual metaphor to support a claim that the cream reduced facial wrinkles. The ad featured two juxtaposed images of a beautiful (Caucasian) woman. She was wearing what seemed to be a white robe, folded over one shoulder like a Roman toga. In the background was a pure blue sky and a suggestion of white pillars, of the kind found in a Greek temple. One picture was cracked, like the surface of an old oil painting. The other was smooth. The metaphoric reference was clear: the cracks suggested wrinkles, but in an elegant way that was complimentary, not demeaning, to age. Old paintings are things of classical beauty, but the paint does tend to crack with age. The ad was designed to draw the eye across aesthetically appealing images while giving the reader heavy hints about the classic beauty they might aspire to if they were to consume the brand.

However the levels of meaning in advertisements are theorized. Acknowledging their presence lends a new dimension to the analysis of advertising as persuasive communication. It brings to light some of the subtlety and complexity of advertising design, while also allowing us to draw an intellectual connection between the various artificially differentiated categories of marketing communication."

(Chris Hackley, 2010)

Chris Hackley (2010). "Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach", Second Edition, SAGE Publications Ltd.

TAGS

2010adadsadvertisementadvertising and promotionadvertising design • aesthetically appealing images • artificially differentiated categories • beautifulblue sky • Caucasian woman • classic beauty • classical beauty • crack with age • demeaningface cream • facial wrinkles • Greek temple • heavy hints • juxtaposed imageslevels of meaningmarketing communicationmetaphoric referenceoil painting • old paintings • persuasive communicationpersuasively suggestive • press ad • Retinol Activ Pur • Roman toga • visual metaphorvisual rhetoric • white pillars • white robe • wrinkles

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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