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Every click you make, Facebook tracker will be watching you

"Facebook also introduced new features aimed at marketing companies that let users monitor what their fellow members are watching and listening to online instantly. ...

'Retention of information online has always been a problem. If information comes and goes fleetingly there's less likelihood it will be used other than for the purpose you put it up, which is just to keep people in touch with what you're doing,' Mr Vaile said.

'This is in line with my concern about Facebook trying to change how people think and encourage them to normalise over–sharing and abandon any restraint on storage and use and exposure of private information.'"

(Andrew Colley, 24 September 2011, The Australian)



abandon restraint • autonomycommercial exploitationcommodifying myselfcommodityconductconstruction of normscontextcross-context sharing • cyber-communities • cyberspacedatadata matchingdemassificationdigital identity • digital maps • digital representation • digital signature • e-privacyethicsexposureFacebook • Facebook tracker • human interactioninformationinformation sharingmonitoringnormalisationnormalising over-sharingonlineownershippersonal informationprivacy • privacy watchdog • publicly availableretention of informationsocial networkingstoragetechnological innovation • they are watching you • timeline • Timothy Pilgrim • trackerUNSWuse of private information • use their information • what you are watching


Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2011

Fragments and Figments of Knowledge: the Documentation of Contemporary Art

"The research project Methodology for the Documentation of Contemporary Art was initiated by Professor Dr Hubertus Kohle and Dr Harald Kraemer at the interdisciplinary Kulturwissenschaftliches Forschungskolleg at the Universities of Aachen, Bonn and Cologne [1]. The main aim of this project (1999–2001) was to develop strategies and structures for a methodology for the study and documentation of modern and contemporary art. Furthermore, the project was to demonstrate, through specific characteristics of modern art, the need for new documentation procedures and the use of digital technologies. Traditional, static methods of documentation can be significantly extended through the application of multimedia electronic technologies. The diverse prerequisites and specific demands of contemporary art require a changed methodology of analysis and documentation. Hence, the aim of the project was to find the answers to the following questions: to what extent can the revamped documentation methods provide a basis for meaningful interpretation of contemporary art? And what is the role of interactive digital multimedia technology here?"

(Harald Kraemer, 2001)

[1] Kulturwissenschaftliches Forschungskolleg (SFB / FK 427) 'Medien und kulturelle Kommunikation'. Nicole Birtsch, Kathrin Lucht, Martina Nied, Simone Schmickl and Christina Hemsley were the other members of the team.


2001archive • Bonn • Colognecontemporary art • digital art history • digital culture • digital multimedia technology • digital technologiesdocumentation • documentation procedures • Harald Kraemer • Hubertus Kohle • ICTintegrationmanagementmedia artmethodologymodern artmultimedianew mediaorderingprocedureresearch projectstaticstorage • structuring • technology • Universities of Aachen


Simon Perkins
25 MAY 2010

From Digital Libraries to Knowledge Commons

"Digital Libraries began as systems whose goal was to simulate the operation of traditional libraries for books and other text documents in digital form. Significant developments have been made since then, and Digital Libraries are now on their way to becoming 'Knowledge Commons'. These are pervasive systems at the centre of intellectual activity, facilitating communication and collaboration among scientists or the general public and synthesizing distributed multimedia documents, sensor data, and other information.

Digital Libraries represent the confluence of a variety of technical areas both within the field of informatics (eg data management and information retrieval), and outside it (eg library sciences and sociology). Early Digital Library efforts mostly focused on bridging some of the gaps between the constituent fields, defining `digital library functionality', and integrating solutions from each field into systems that support such functionality. These have resulted in several successful systems: researchers, educators, students and members of other communities now continuously search Digital Libraries for information as part of their daily routines, decision–making processes, or entertainment.

Most current Digital Library systems share certain characteristics. They are content–centric, motivated by the need to organize and provide access to data and information. They concentrate on storage–centric functionality, mainly offering static storage and retrieval of information. They are specialized systems, built from scratch and tailored to the particular needs and characteristics of the data and users of their target environment, with little provision for generalization. They tend to operate in isolation, limiting the opportunities for large–scale analysis and global–scale information availability. Finally, they concentrate on material that is traditionally found in libraries, mostly related to cultural heritage. Hence, despite the undisputed advantages that current Digital Library systems offer compared to the pre–1990s era, the above restrictions limit the role that Digital Libraries can play in Knowledge Societies, which will serve as important educational nuclei in the future.

Together with the general community, the DELOS Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries has initiated a long journey from current Digital Libraries towards the vision of 'Knowledge Commons'. These will be environments that will impose no conceptual, logical, physical, temporal or personal borders or barriers on content. They will be the universal knowledge repositories and communication conduits of the future, common vehicles by which everyone will access, analyse, evaluate, enhance and exchange all forms of information. They will be indispensable tools in the daily personal and professional lives of people, allowing everyone to advance their knowledge, professions and roles in society. They will be accessible at any time and from anywhere, and will offer a user–friendly, multi–modal, efficient and effective interaction and exploration environment.

Achieving this requires significant changes to be made to past development strategies, which shaped the functionality, operational environment and other aspects of Digital Libraries. Knowledge Commons will have different characteristics. They will be person–centric, motivated by needs to provide novel, sophisticated, and personalized experiences to users. They will concentrate on communication and collaboration functionality, facilitating intellectual interactions on themes that are pertinent to their contents, with storage and retrieval being only a small part of such functionality. They will remain specialized systems that will nevertheless be built on top of widely–available, industrial–strength, generic management systems, offering all typically required functionality. In general, they will be managed by globally distributed systems, through which information sources across the world will exchange and integrate their contents. Finally, they will be characterized by universality of information and application, serving all applications and comprehensively managing all forms of content."

(Yannis Ioannidis)


access to informationcollaborationconduitconfluence • content-centric • DELOS • digital library • distributed multimedia • distributed systeminformaticsinformationinformation retrievalintegration • intellectual interactions on themes • knowledge commonsknowledge construction • knowledge repositories • knowledge society • library • library sciences • Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries • person-centric • personalised experiencepervasiverepository • retrieval • storage • storage-centric


Simon Perkins
05 NOVEMBER 2008

JISC: An institutional repository for Nottingham Trent University

Repositories start–up project
Nottingham Trent University will develop a repository for the storage of a wide variety of materials, teaching and learning, research and institutional in an eclectic variety of formats integrated into a single search mechanism which addresses all the locations we store information. Essentially we want to build a location for anything and everything which will extend the body of knowledge held by the University for the benefit and extension of our members.

Aims and Objectives
The primary aim of this project is to research, specify, procure and implement an institutional repository which enables the management of a wide range of digital assets. The core of the repository will be the digital archive of the University's research output. This is primarily defined by the RAE process and focuses on peer–reviewed post–publication outputs or post–prints. However, the repository will not merely duplicate existing channels of scholarly publication, but will also include a range of grey literature."
(HEFCE, on behalf of JISC, 2007)



authorshipcollectcontrolHEFCEintegrateJISC • manage • Nottingham Trent UniversityNTUownershippublicationRAErepositoryresearchstorageUKuniversity


Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2005

Giulio Camillo's Memory Theatre

"The Renaissance marks a turning point in the history of academic practice. As the knowledge and understanding of the world became more complex, oral discourse, based uniquely on mentally archived facts, was no longer an adequate means of storing information. The increasing number of knowledge theories and models required dissemination facilitated by the printing press, which perpetrated and accelerated the accumulation of written knowledge. Information could be more easily recalled as the library became the new 'palace of memory'. With regard to the structure, summoning and visualisation of stored information, mnemonic treatises of the Gutenberg Era abandon the presentation of individual storage strategies. In place of these, systems of arranging and visualising the by now immense knowledge of the world itself were developed. One example was the well–known Memory Theatre of Giulio Camillo. (Fig.1)

Based on the seven pillars of Solomon's House of Wisdom, it was divided into seven levels representing the order of the world from the seven planets up to Arts and Sciences, Religion and Law. The accumulated knowledge was presented in images, symbols and texts, some of them immediately visible, others confined to drawers, boxes or coffers beneath the images."

(Katja Kwastek)

Fig. 1. Reconstruction of the memory theatre of Giulio Camillo. Reproduced after: Aby Warburg: Der Bilderatlas Mnemosyne, Warnke, M. (ed.), Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2000, p. 85.



Aby Warburgallegoryconceptual metaphorEuropean Renaissance • Giulio Camillo • Johannes Gutenberglibrarymemorymemory palace • memory theatre • mnemonic • palace of memory • Solomon • Solomons House of Wisdom • storage

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