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Which clippings match 'Speech' keyword pg.1 of 2
07 JUNE 2015

Ferdinand de Saussure: Place of Language in the Facts of Speech

"In order to separate from the whole of speech the part that belongs to language, we must examine the individual act from which the speaking-circuit can be reconstructed. The act requires the presence of at least two persons; that is the minimum number necessary to complete the circuit. Suppose that two people, A and B, are conversing with each other [see figure 1 below].

Suppose that the opening of the circuit is in A's brain, where mental facts (concepts) are associated with representations of the linguistic sounds (sound-images) that are used for their expression. A given concept unlocks a corresponding sound-image in the brain; this purely psychological phenomenon is followed in turn by a physiological process: the brain transmits an impulse corresponding to the image to the organs used in producing sounds. Then the sound waves travel from the mouth of A to the ear of B: a purely physical process. Next, the circuit continues in B, but the order is reversed: from the ear to the brain, the physiological transmission of the sound-image; in the brain, the psychological association of the image with the corresponding concept. If B then speaks, the new act will follow-from his brain to A's-exactly the same course as the first act and pass through the same successive phases, which I shall diagram as follows [see figure 2 below].

The preceding analysis does not purport to be complete. We might also single out the pure acoustical sensation, the identification of that sensation with the latent sound-image, the muscular image of phonation, etc. I have included only the elements thought to be essential, but the drawing brings out at a glance the distinction between the physical (sound waves), physiological (phonation and audition), and psychological parts (word-images and concepts). Indeed, we should not fail to note that the word-image stands apart from the sound itself and that it is just as psychological as the concept which is associated with it. "

(Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger, Wade Baskin, p.11, 12)

Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger, Wade Baskin (1966). "Course in General Linguistics", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York Toronto London.

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TAGS

1966 • acoustical sensation • Albert Riedlinger • Albert Sechehaye • audition (linguistics) • audition phonation circuit • brain • Charles Bally • circuitcommunication processcommunication theory • Course in General Linguistics (1966) • dialogic • ear • Ferdinand de Saussurehuman expressionimagelanguagelinguistic philosophy • linguistic sounds • linguistics • mental facts (concepts) • messagemodel of communicationmouth • muscular image of phonation • phonation (linguistics) • phonation and audition • physiological process • physiological transmission • psychological association • psychological phenomenon • sound waves • sound-image • speaking-circuit • speechtheory of communication • Wade Baskin • word-image

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 FEBRUARY 2014

Western Electric AT&T: early computer graphics

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1968AT and T • Beflicks • Bell Laboratories Flicks • Bell LabsBell Telephone Laboratoriescomputer graphicscomputer history • computer movie • Daisy Bell (Bicycle Built for Two) • digital drawing • digital movie • digital pen • early computer-erahuman speechlight penPrelinger Archivespunch cards • random letters • robotic voice • sheet music • speakingspeechspeech synthesissynthesis machines • synthesized speech • The Incredible Machine (1968) • typewriter

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2012

Cleverbot: talk to an intelligent bot

"Cleverbot is Artificial Intelligence. Say whatever you like – songs, jokes, memes or anything, and it will respond. It learns what people say, in context, and imitates. Cleverbot is an entertainment – not made to be logical, give advice, or be useful. Many people keep talking for hours, and say it's too clever to be a bot – that it must be human. Yet it never is: it is a bot. Cleverbot is software. Maybe it even contains a little Actual Intelligence."

(Rollo Carpenter, Icogno Ltd.)

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AIappartificial intelligenceavatarawarenessbehaviourbot • Cleverbot • Cleverlips • communicationconversation • Dragon Dictate • emotion • emotional avatar • human speechhuman-computer interactionhuman-likeinteractive toyiOSiPadiPhoneiPod Touchlifelikemachine learningman machine • Nuance Communications • Nuance software • nuanced • pattern recognitionrepresentationrobot • Rollo Carpenter • simulationSirisociable robotspeakingspeechspeech recognitionspeech synthesissyntheticsynthetic-life • talk out loud • voice • voice tech

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 DECEMBER 2010

BBC Archive Collections

An archive of BBC radio and television programmes.

Fig. 1 Abdication speech of King Edward VIII broadcast from Windsor Castle (11 December 1936).

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1936 • abdication • archiveaudioBBCBBC archiveBritain • British Broadcasting Corporation • broadcastbroadcasting • broadcasting heritage • collectionculturefilmhistory • King Edward VIII • old mediaphotographradioradio broadcastspeechtelevision • television heritage • UK

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 JANUARY 2009

Barack Obama: our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness

"For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus – and non–believers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace."

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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