"The strengths of qualitative research methods lie in their usefulness for understanding the meaning and context of the phenomena studied, and the particular events and processes that make up these phenomena over time, in real-life, natural settings .When evaluating computer information systems, these contextual issues include social, cultural, organizational, and political concerns surrounding an information technology; the processes of information systems development, installation, and use (or lack of use); and how all these are conceptualized and perceived by the participants in the setting where the study is being conducted ."
(Bonnie Kaplan and Joseph A. Maxwell, p.31, 2005)
Kaplan, B. and J. Maxwell (2005). Qualitative Research Methods for Evaluating Computer Information Systems. Evaluating the Organizational Impact of Healthcare Information Systems. J. Anderson and C. Aydin. New York, Springer: 30-55.
"Following Klein & Myers (1999), the foundation assumption for interpretive research is that knowledge is gained, or at least filtered, through social constructions such as language, consciousness, and shared meanings. In addition to the emphasis on the socially constructed nature of reality, interpretive research acknowledges the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is being explored, and the situational constraints shaping this process. In terms of methodology, interpretive research does not predefine dependent or independent variables, does not set out to test hypotheses, but aims to produce an understanding of the social context of the phenomenon and the process whereby the phenomenon influences and is influenced by the social context (Walsham, 1995)."
(Bruce H. Rowlands, 2005)
ISSN 1477-7029 81 ©Academic Conferences Ltd Reference this paper as: Rowlands B (2005) 'Grounded in Practice: Using Interpretive Research to Build Theory' The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methodology Volume 3 Issue 1, pp 81-92, available online at www.ejbrm.com
Klein, H., & Myers, M., (1999), 'A Set of Principals for Conducting and Evaluating Interpretive Field Studies in Information Systems', MIS Quarterly, Vol 23, No 1, pp 67-94.
Walsham, G., (1995), 'Interpretive Case Studies in IS Research: Nature and Method', European Journal of Information Systems, Vol 4. No 2, pp.74-81.
"Interpretive methods of research start from the position that our knowledge of reality, including the domain of human action, is a social construction by human actors and that this applies equally to researchers. Thus there is no objective reality which can be discovered by researchers and replicated by others, in contrast to the assumptions of positivist science"
(Geoff Walsham, 1993)
Walsham, G. Interpreting Information Systems in Organizations, Wiley, Chichester, 1993.
[Approaches to research that are 'interpretive' sit in contrast to empirical-analytic approaches.]
"The 'bob-haired muse', the 'holy shears' and 'Dada's good girl' are a few of the epitaphs that prevail in the comfortable little niche art history has carved out for Hannah Höch. These sound bites are seriously challenged by this travelling retrospective organised by the Walker Art Center. 'The Photomontages of Hannah Höch' momentously reconstructs her marginalised role in early 20th-century art and perhaps even ordains her as the single most influential female artist of the century. The exhibition surveying Höch's 55 years of photomontage not only rescues her from the anti-art antics of the legendary Berlin Dada circle but inclusively chronicles her private and aesthetic journey through the social and cultural constructs that have emerged in the 20th century. While she may have been remembered by her bombastic Dada colleagues for her 'sandwiches, beer and coffee', her lifetime of artistic practice reveals a vital and critical woman who could magically collide disparate reproductions of needlepoint patterns, political figures, film stars, animal life and non-Western artefacts into explorations of androgyny, Aryan activity, gender roles, imperialism, race and lesbianism."
(Michelle Grabner, Issue 33 March-April 1997, Frieze Magazine)
Fig.1 Hannah Höch "Entwurf für das Denkmal eines bedeutenden Spitzenhemdes", 1922, Entwurf, Tafelmalerei, Collage, 27,4 x 17 cm, Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Ikonographie (Iconclass)
"By the mid-nineteenth century, the academic tradition of the Paris Salon was under attack by artists who wanted to break with the image of an ideal female body, and replace it with a reflection of the nude as it might be seen in the contemporary, modern world. The realist artist Edouard Manet shocked the Salon public with Olympia in 1863, a portrait that completely disregarded the formalist tradition of painting the nude, and depicted a low-class prostitute sprawled out on an unmade bed. Contemporaries labelled Manet's technique rough and crude, his brushstrokes hurried and inconsistent, and his use of colour alarming. Olympia's skin, in particular, caused outrage. Unlike the polished finish of classical nudes, Manet had used tones of yellow and grey, which made her skin look sallow, and had outlined her figure in a rough, dark line, which gave her a flat and two-dimensional appearance. Art critics noted that Olympia had 'dirty hands and wrinkled feet;' 'her face is stupid, her skin cadaverous [...] she does not have a human form.' They also criticized Manet's break with the traditional rules of the gaze. Unlike Venus's seductive, yet demure and mysterious half-glance, Olympia stared brazenly out from the canvas. Her forceful gaze communicated confidence, defiance, and self-possession, which was disarming when paired with her nakedness. The subject matter was also roundly criticized. Manet had painted a common prostitute, not a genteel courtesan, and had made no attempt to conceal this fact. As T. J. Clark has noted, her placement in a comfortably bourgeois setting added to the shocking effect of the painting, and in the figure of Olympia, Manet had successfully bared the social taboos of prostitution, illicit sex and disease, all of which were growing concerns during the second half of the nineteenth century. With this image, Manet had created what he felt was a realistic, honest, depiction of the female body, one that was stripped of the artistic traditions of form and technique, and connected to some of the disconcerting elements of modern life."
(Julie Anne Johnson, 2008)
[Edouard Manet''s Olympia works as a parody of Titian' 'The Venus of Urbino'.]
8. T. J Clark, The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Age of Manet and his Followers, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984, 134.
9. Charles Bernheimer, 'Manet's Olympia: The Figuration of Scandal,' Poetics Today, Volume 10, Issue 2, Art & Literature II (Summer 1989): 255-277, 256.