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20 NOVEMBER 2012

Dara Ó Briain's Science Club: A Dodo's Guide to Extinction

"A few hundred years ago, extinction as a concept made no sense to anyone. But then fossil finds and advances in geology showed that it's part of life, and a statistical certainty – even for human beings."

(BBC Two, UK)

Fig.1 this animation is from Episode 3 of 6 of Dara Ó Briain's Science Club, Tuesday 20 November at 9pm on BBC Two, voiced by Helen McCrory, animated by 12Foot6, Published on YouTube on 19 Nov 2012 by BBC.

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12Foot620122D2D animation • 4004 BC • ages of fossils • ancient artefacts • animated information graphicsanimation • archaeological materials • BBC TwoBBC2Dara O Briain • deep time • devildinosaur • dodo • elephant • evolutionary change • evolutionary theoryevolutionary treeextinction • fossil • fossil specimen • geochronology • geologic time • geological timescales • geologist • geology • Georges Cuvier • history of ideas • Homo neanderthalensis • Homo sapiens neanderthalensis • human beingshuman speciesillustration to visually communicate information • invertebrates • James Hutton • James Ussher • lifemammalsmass extinctionnatural historynaturalist • neanderthal • Noah • radioactive dating • radioactive isotope • radiocarbon dating • radiometric dating • sabre-toothed cat • sabre-toothed tiger • scienceScience Club (tv)sequential artspecimen • Stellers sea cow • story of science • Tasmanian tiger • Tasmanian wolf • thylacine • tree of lifeUKvisual representations of scientific concepts • woolly mammoth

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 JULY 2009

Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins

"Lake Mungo 3 is the oldest (Pleistocene) 'anatomically modern' human from whom DNA has been recovered. His mtDNA belonged to a lineage that only survives as a segment inserted into chromosome 11 of the nuclear genome, which is now widespread among human populations. This lineage probably diverged before the most recent common ancestor of contemporary human mitochondrial genomes. This timing of divergence implies that the deepest known mtDNA lineage from an anatomically modern human occurred in Australia; analysis restricted to living humans places the deepest branches in East Africa. The other ancient Australian individuals we examined have mtDNA sequences descended from the most recent common ancestor of living humans. Our results indicate that anatomically modern humans were present in Australia before the complete fixation of the mtDNA lineage now found in all living people. Sequences from additional ancient humans may further challenge current concepts of modern human origins."

(Gregory Adcock, Elizabeth Dennis, Simon Easteal, Gavin Huttley, Lars Jermiin, William Peacock and Alan Thorne)

Adcock, G. J., E. S. Dennis, et al. (2001). "Mitochondrial DNA sequences in ancient Australians: Implications for modern human origins." Archaeology in Oceania 36(3): 163-163.

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19742001Aboriginal AustraliansAfrica • Alan Thorne • alternative explanation • anatomically modern human • ancient DNA • ancient humans • ancient peoplearchaeology • Archaeology in Oceania • AsiaAustraliaAustralian National University • bone fragments • burial ritual • cell biologychromosome • common ancestor • cremated remains • divergence • divergent selection • divergent variation • DNAEast Africa • Elizabeth Dennis • emergence of modern humans • Europe • evolutionary lineage • evolutionary process • evolutionary theoryevolutionary tree • female skeleton • fixation • fossil evidence • fossil specimen • Gavin Huttley • genetic lineage • genetic pool • genetic relationship • genetic sequence • genome • genotyping analysis • Gregory Adcock • Homo erectus • Homo sapiens • human evolutionhuman history • human populations • human speciesIndiaIndigenous Australians • Lake Mungo • Lars Jermiin • living humans • Mamanwa people • mitochondria • mitochondrial genome • modern human origins • mtDNA lineage • multiregional evolution • multiregional explanation • multiregional origin of modern humans hypothesis • Mungo Lady • Mungo Man • New South Walesochre • origin of modern humans • out-of-Africa hypothesis • Papua New GuineaPeoples Republic of China • pleistocene • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) • Simon Easteal • simultaneous development • skeletal remains • skeletonSouth East Asianspeciation • subspecies • William Peacock

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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