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Which clippings match 'Henri Bergson' keyword pg.1 of 2
28 OCTOBER 2014

Questioning the goal of efficiency in contemporary culture

"Efficiency in human behavior is a goal that is rarely questioned in contemporary culture. This course will study and draw connections between disparate fields to trace the development and influence of this view. The course, drawing a mix of humanities and engineering students, will include readings and lectures on 19th and 20th century philosophers with discussions of new technology and team experimental projects.

Frederick Taylor, the father of industrial engineering, analyzed human motion to optimize industrial productivity, which had great influence on Henry Ford, military logistics, and Stalin. Michel Foucault traced the history of the minute analysis of human motion from Napoleon's methods for transforming peasants into soldiers to modern methods for reforming prisoners. Martin Heidegger claimed that 'efficient ordering' was the defining characteristic of modern culture. Through the course, students will learn to recognize how this obsession with efficiency for its own sake relates to technology and to their daily lives."

(Questioning Efficiency: Human Factors and Existential Phenomenology, UC Berkeley course syllabus, Fall 2006)

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TAGS

Albert Borgmann • Anson Rabinbach • Anton BragagliaBerkeley (University of California)capture a moment of timechronophotographycooking in the kitchen • critique of technology • Dale Huchingson • dematerialization of objects in space • Eadweard Muybridgeefficiency • efficient ordering • Eliot Eliofson • Emily Fox • engineering students • Etienne-Jules Marey • everyday life • existential phenomenology • fotodinamismo • Frank Gilbreth • Frederick Taylor • geometric chronophotograph • goal • golfer • Henri BergsonHenry Ford • homemaker • Hubert Dreyfushuman behaviourhuman bodyhuman factorshuman factors in designhuman motion • Idris Khan • increased productivityindustrial engineering • industrial productivity • infinite continuity of time • James Gleick • Joseph Stalin • Ken Goldberg • kitchen • kitchen studies • lecture programmeLillian Gilbrethlong exposure • management science • Marcel DuchampMartin Heideggermeasure performancemetricisationmetricsMichel Foucault • military logistics • model kitchen • modern culture • modern homemaker • motion studiesNapoleon Bonaparte • Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) • objects in motion • obsession with efficiency • philosophy of technologyproductivity • reconstruction of movement • schematic phases • scientific goalssimultaneityslow motion photographystudying motiontechnologyThe Kitchen Practical (1929) • time and motion studies • time savingtime-motion studies • Umberto Boccioni • wasted motion

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 NOVEMBER 2013

The Strange Death of Ordinary Language Philosophy

Ordinary Language Philosophy (OLP) "was identified mainly with British analytic philosophers of the last mid–century and more specifically those at the University of Oxford. Its chief practitioners were regarded to be such philosophers as Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951), Gilbert Ryle (1900–1976), J. L. Austin (1911–1960), P. F. Strawson (1919–), Paul Grice (1913–1988) and John Wisdom (1904–1993). From the late 1940s to the early 1960s OLP was an integral part of the mainstream of analytic philosophy; as Stephen Mulhall (1994: 444) has pointed out, when a leading introductory textbook of the era spoke simply of 'contemporary philosophy,' it was OLP that was being referred to. Currently, however, OLP is not generally viewed as a legitimate intellectual option for philosophers, analytic or otherwise. In fact it's safe to say that, with the possible exception of Bergson's and Driesch's vitalism, OLP is the most deeply unfashionable of all the main currents of twentieth–century Western philosophy. It has fallen victim to what Stan Godlovitch has called philosophy's equivalent of 're–touching family photos, old Kremlin–style' (2000: 6)."

(Tommi Uschanov, April 2001)

TAGS

20th century • analytic philosophy • British • contemporary philosophy • erasure • Gilbert Ryle • Hans Driesch • Henri Bergsonhistory of ideasintellectual history • John Austin • John Wisdom • languagelegitimate knowledge • legitimate scholarly texts • legitimationlinguistic philosophyLudwig Wittgensteinmid-century • ordinary language philosophy • Oxford analysis • Paul Grice • Peter Strawson • philosophy • sociology of knowledge • Stan Godlovitch • Stephen Mulhall • unfashionable • University of OxfordWestern philosophy

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 JULY 2009

Henri Bergson: becoming and transformation

"[Henri] Bergson's project can be understood to be the transformation of the concept of being through the generation of an ontology of becoming, of the actual in terms of the elaboration of the virtual, and of intelligence through the intervention of intuition. These are three expressions of one and the same programme – the replacement of static conceptions of things through the creation of dynamic conceptions of processes in continual transition. [Gilles] Deleuze's attraction to Bergsonism lies in precisely Bergson's undermining of the stability of fixed objects and states and his affirmation of the vibratory continuity of the material universe as a whole, that is, in his developing a philosophy of movement and change.
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Bergson understands life, not as a repetition of matter so much as a reply to it. For him, the varieties of species are an acknowledgement of the virtualities life had within itself from the first, qualities of becoming and transformation that govern life from the 'beginning': each species and individual is a corporeal response to a problem the environment poses of how to extract from it the resources needed for life to sustain and transform itself. The becoming of life is the unbecoming of matter, which is not its transformation into (inert) being, but its placement in a different trajectory of becoming. Life intervenes into matter to give it a different virtuality than that through which matter initially generated the possibilities of life. Life recapitulates matter's durational dynamism, by becoming in all directions available to it, that is, in differing as much as possible in its co–evolution with matter: life brings new virtuality to matter which already harbored in itself the impetus of becoming."
(Elizabeth Grosz, Deleuze, 2004: 33, Rutgers University)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 JANUARY 2004

Deleuze: Actual And Virtual

"The crystal–image has these two aspects: internal limit of all the relative circuits, but also outer–most, variable and reshapable envelope, at the edges of the world, beyond even moments of world. The little crystalline seed and the vast crystallizable universe: everything is included in the capacity for expansion of the collection constituted by the seed and the universe. Memories, dreams, even worlds are only apparent relative circuits which depend on the variations of this Whole. They are degrees or modes of actualization which are spread out between these two extremes of the actual and the virtual: the actual and its virtual on the small circuit, expanding virtualities in the deep circuits. And it is from the inside that the small internal circuit makes contact with the deep ones, directly, through the merely relative circuits.What constitutes the crystal–image is the most fundamental operation of time: since the past is constituted not after the present that it was but at the same time, time has to split itself in two at each moment as present and past, which differ from each other in nature, or, what amounts to the same thing, it has to split the present in two heterogeneous directions, one of which is launched towards the future while the other falls into the past." Time has to split at the same time as it sets itself out or unrolls itself: it splits in two dissymmetrical jets, one of which makes all the present pass on, while the other preserves all the past. Time consists of this split, and it is this, it is time, that we see in the crystal. The crystal–image was not time, but we see time in the crystal. We see in the crystal the perpetual foundation of time, non–chronological time, Cronos and not Chronos. This is the powerful, non–organic Life which grips the world."
(Gilles Deleuze p.80–81. 1989)

Gilles Deleuze, 1989.Cinema 2: The Time Image. University of Minnesota Press.

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TAGS

actualisation • chronologicalcircuitcollectioncrystal • crystal-image • dreamGilles DeleuzeHenri Bergsonheterogeneousmemory • mode • pastpresentseedteleologytimeuniversevirtualvirtuality
02 JANUARY 2004

Virtuality: Present And Contemporaneous Past

"It is clearly necessary for [the present] to pass on for the new present to arrive, and it is clearly necessary for it to pass at the same time as it is present, at the moment that it is the present. Thus the image has to be present and past, still present and already past, at once and at the same time. If it was not already past at the same time as present, the present would never pass on. The past does not follow the present that it is no longer, it coexists with the present it was. The present is the actual image, and its contemporaneous past is the virtual image, the image in a mirror."
(Gilles Deleuze, p.79. 1989)

Gilles Deleuze, 1989.Cinema 2: The Time Image. University of Minnesota Press.

TAGS

coexist • contemporaneousGilles DeleuzeHenri Bergsonmirrorpast • perpetual present • presentvirtualvirtuality
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