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Which clippings match 'Donald Schon' keyword pg.1 of 4
19 DECEMBER 2015

A History of the Studio-based Learning Model

"Studio-based instruction and learning has become a hot topic in K-12 education today. Knowing the origins of studio-based learning in education, as well as in art and architectural education can provide us with a deeper understanding of the purposes and goals of studio-based methods. Much can be gained by educators to the turn of the century for guidance in translating the new popular studio-based learning model developed in architectural education."

(Jeffery A. Lackney, 2 August 1999)





19th century20th centuryactive learning • aesthetic training • apprentice system • architectural education • art and architectural education • art and design educationatelier modelBauhaus School • charrette • child-centred approach • Columbia University • David Hoff • design problemdesign studio education • design studio model • Donald Schon • Ecole des Beaux Arts • Ernest Boyer • Francis Parker • Friedrich Frobel • history of ideas and learning • Horace Mann • Horace Mann High School • Indiana • integrated curriculum • Jeffery Lackney • John DeweyK-12 • Laboratory School in Chicago • learner-centredlearning by doing • Lee Mitgang • Massachusetts • mastery • Mississippi State University • Parker School in Quincy • pedagogical model • platoon system • Quincy System • studio approach • studio-based instruction • studio-based learning • studio-based learning model • studio-based methods • studio-based model of learning • University of Oregon • William Wirt


Simon Perkins
12 JUNE 2014

Interpreting the theory-practice relationship

"Theory provides ways of interpreting practical knowledge. Practical knowledge–the basis of our ability to perform successfully as participants in a social practice–is largely tacit and unconscious (Schön, 1983). Imagine trying to explain to someone everything you know that enables you to carry on a successful conversation with another person. Although you might come up with a few general rules (use eye contact, listen, be relevant), no amount of explanation could more than scratch the surface of the complex habits, skills, background information, and situational awareness that even a simple conversation requires, much of which cannot be articulated verbally. As every novice user of cookbooks or computer manuals knows, even the most explicit instructions can be useless to someone who lacks the skills and background knowledge required to follow them. No theory can tell us every– thing–or, in a sense, anything–we need to know to participate in a practical activity. Practical knowledge comes only with the accumulation of direct experience.

Is theory, therefore, useless? The largely tacit nature of practical knowledge does limit the role of theory to some extent; however, it does not warrant the extreme conclusion that theory and practice are unrelated (see Craig, 1996a, in reply to Sandelands, 1990). Theory contributes to 'discursive consciousness' (Giddens, 1984), our conscious awareness of social practices and ability to discuss them knowledgeably. Discursive consciousness enables activities such as reflection, criticism, and explicit planning, thereby shaping practical conduct. A theory of a practice provides a particular way of interpreting practical knowledge, a way of focusing attention on important details of a situation and weaving them into a web of concepts that can give the experience a new layer of meaning, reveal previously unnoticed connections, and suggest new lines of action. Classroom communication, for example, can be discussed in terms of information processing, group dynamics, or ritual, among other theories. Each theory illuminates a different aspect of the situation and suggests a different approach to practical problems."

(Robert Craig, 2006)


2006Anthony Giddens • background knowledge • classroom communication • communication theory • computer manual • connectionsconscious awarenessconversationcookbookcritical reflectioncriticismdirect experience • discursive consciousness • Donald Schon • explicit instructions • explicit planning • focusing attention • general rules • group dynamics • important details • information processing • interpreting practical knowledge • lines of action • Lloyd Sandelands • practical activity • practical conduct • practical knowledge • practical problems • ritual • Robert Craig • social practicestacit knowledgetheorytheory and practice • theory of practice • unconscious understanding • web of concepts


Simon Perkins
19 NOVEMBER 2013

Applying Heidegger's Philosophy to Design

"Heidegger's philosophy offers what is arguably the most thorough account of the process of human understanding available. Although his analysis of interpretation is useful if one is to understand activities like innovative design, it never addresses the realm of design directly. Heidegger discusses interpretation at a high level of generality and chooses his examples from interactions between people and physical artifacts, like the use of hammers by carpenters. He is concerned with the nature of understandingly being in the world. While a person's world includes conceptual and imaginative realms like design, Heidegger's examples primarily come from the world of physical artifacts which can be encountered perceptually. ...

Heidegger treats artifacts in the world the same way he would treat design artifacts on the drawing board. That is, he is not really concerned with them as physically present objects of perception. On the contrary, his main effort philosophically is to distinguish artifacts–in–use from traditional conceptions of physically–present–objects. For example, a hammer in use is not understood by the carpenter as an observed object with physical attributes, but is skillfully applied to the activities of the current situation. Furthermore, this skillful use takes place within the context of future–oriented plans and desires, such as the anticipation of the item that is under construction. This is similar to components of a design, which are skillfully arranged in terms of their relationships to other design components and within the context of the anticipated final design. Marks in a design sketch, for instance, are important for their roles within a network of significances, rather than for their physical properties as lines. Interpretation of both physical artifacts and designs is situated. ...

The notion of breakdown in action plays a rather small role in Heidegger's analysis of human understanding. Heidegger uses examples of breakdown in order to make explicit the network of references among artifacts that are only present tacitly under conditions of normal use. Yet, the notion of breakdown has been elevated to central importance in the theories that have tried to adopt Heidegger's analysis to a theory of design and to operationalize this theory for computer support. Thus, breakdown plays an important role in Schön (1985), Winograd & Flores (1986), Suchman (1987), Ehn (1988), Budde & Züllighoven (1990), McCall, Morch, & Fischer (1990), Dreyfus (1991), Coyne & Snodgrass (1991), Fischer & Nakakoji (1992).

The fact that so many writers influenced by Heidegger have focused on breakdown does not provide multiple independent support for this emphasis. ... most of these writers have been influenced by Heidegger only indirectly–either through Dreyfus or through Schön. If one looks closely at the discussions of breakdown in Dreyfus and Schön, one can note an ambiguity in whether they are speaking about a (ontological) breakdown in the network of references or a (practical) breakdown in action. Dreyfus is certainly aware of the ontological role of breakdown, but he is concerned to make his presentation acceptable to an American audience, trained in the rationalist tradition. For the sake of concreteness, he uses examples that stress the breakdown in action. Schön is also aware of the ontological ramifications, but he has couched his discussion in terms of action (e.g., knowing–in–action, reflection–in–action), so it often seems that his examples of breakdown exemplify breakdowns in action rather than breakdowns in situated understanding. Given that it is easier to operationalize breakdowns in action than breakdowns in situated understanding, it is not surprising that people interested in producing practical results from Dreyfus or Schön's theories would tend to emphasize the action–oriented reading of the ambiguous discussions."

(Gerry Stahl, 5 January 2004)


action-oriented reading • Adrian Snodgrass • Anders Morch • anticipation • artefacts-in-use • being-in-the-worldbreakdown • breakdown in action • breakdown in the network of references • breakdowns in action • breakdowns in situated understanding • carpenter • conceptual domain • concreteness • current situationdesign artefactsdesign innovation • design sketch • design theoryDonald Schon • drawing board • Fernando Floresflow • Gerhard Fischer • Gerry Stahl • hammer • Heinz Zullighoven • Hubert Dreyfushuman perception • human understanding • innovative design • knowing-in-action • Kumiyo Nakakoji • Lucy Suchman • Martin Heidegger • nature of understanding • network of references • network of significances • normal use • objects of perception • Pelle Ehn • philosophy of design • physical artefacts • physical attributes • physical properties • physically present • physically-present-objects • rationalist tradition • Raymond McCall • reflection-in-action • Reinhard Budde • Richard Coynesituated construction of realitysituated knowledgessketching ideas • skillful use • Terry Winogradtheory of design


Simon Perkins
29 OCTOBER 2013

Using a Recording Template as part of a Reflective Practice Model

"An RT [Recording Template] is required to collate this evidence forming a framework from which we will annotate the project's life cycle. This reflection will bring about a direct interface with the learning contract (LC) objectives and help shape and control the project as it occurs. Alongside the RT, a daily journal will also be kept and all the notes of communication from peers logged and referred back to. This triangulation of data, will allow me to gain a sense of perspective towards my research. The different evidence will qualify a more balanced view of events."

(James Kelway, 31 March 2005)



action researchannotationsBob DickCal Swann • daily journal • data triangulation • Donald Schon • evidence forming • evidence gatheringhigher education • James Kelway • James McKernan • Jean McNiff • Josey-Bass • Kogen Page • learning contract • lifecycle model • Ortrunn Zuber-Skeritt • practice of design • professional developmentproject method • project reflection • project work • recording template • reflective journalreflective practitionerresearch method • Rizal Sebastian • triangulation


Simon Perkins
26 MARCH 2013

Drawing as a conversation which prompts new imaginings

"Perception of external sources of inspiration prompts new imaginings. Research on the role of externalisations in design thinking has concentrated on the role of sketching[14]. Schön[15] has shown that for many architects, sketching is an essential part of creative design, and creation is driven by making and perceiving sketches; Schön characterises design as an interactive conversation between mind and sketch. Designers directly appreciate different types of information in their own sketches[16], alternating between seeing that and seeing as[17]. Ambiguity in sketches facilitates reinterpretation triggered by dissatisfaction with the current design[18]. For designers who make active use of sources of inspiration in designing, they play a similar role to designers' own sketches."

(Claudia Eckerta, Martin Stacey, p.526, 2000, Design Studies)

[14] Purcell, A T and Gero, J S 'Drawings and the design process' Design Studies Vol 19 (1998) pp 389–430
[15] Schön, D A The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action Basic Books, New York (1983)
[16] Schön, D A and Wiggins, G 'Kinds of seeing and their functions in designing' Design Studies Vol 13 (1992) pp 135–156 [17] Gabriela Goldschmidt 'The dialectics of sketching' Creativity Research Journal Vol 4 (1991) pp 123–143 [–E2010/files/2010/10/goldsmidt_dialectics_paper.pdf]
[18] McFadzean, J, Cross, N G and Johnson, J H 'Notation and Cognition in Conceptual Sketching' in Proceedings, VR'99 Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design MIT Press, Cambridge MA (1999)

Claudia Eckerta, Martin Stacey (2000). "Sources of inspiration: a language of design", Design Studies, Volume 21, Issue 5, September 2000, Pages 523–538


2000architectsClaudia Eckert • conceptual prompt • conversation with the situationcreative designcritical investigationdesign inspirationdesign languagedesign methodDesign Studies (journal)design thinkingdesigningDonald Schondoodlingdrawing • drawing experiments • drawing ideasdrawing studyimagining • inspiration prompts • interactive conversation • knitwear design • making sketches • Martin Stacey • new imaginings • reinterpretationseeing and doingseeing asseeing thatshared cultural referencesketchingsources of inspirationthinking through drawingthinking toolstriggering ideasvisual problem-solving • visual prompt • visual study


Simon Perkins

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