"Roman Jakobson found a comparable dichotomy between metaphor and metonymy in his seminal paper, 'Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances,' published in his monograph, Fundamentals of Language (Mouton & Co--Gravenhage, 1956). Here Jakobson discussed two types of aphasia based on complementary disorders in comprehending language: (a) a similarity disorder whereby one primarily depends on syntactic context to draw words into use (pp. 63-64); and (b) a contiguity disorder whereby one's style becomes a telegraphic 'word heap' without much, if any, evidence of syntax (pp. 71-72). According to Jakobson, two faculties are thus involved in the use of language: (a) selection in the choice of words to express an idea (metaphoric); and (b) the combination of words, again to express an idea (metonymic). Elaborate sentences without a particularly impressive vocabulary (for example in the prose of Henry James) illustrates the similarity disorder, while big vocabulary in loosely constructed sentences (for example in the prose of James Joyce) illustrates the contiguity disorder. Joyce heaped together his words with apparent abandonment, while James strenuously belaboured his syntax to produce exactly the right effect--an effect he found difficult to articulate with words alone as opposed to their combination in intricate sentences. An inferior choice of words, Jakobson claimed, is at the sacrifice of metaphor, whereas an inferior combination of words is at the sacrifice of metonymy (p. 76)."
Jakobson, R. (1971). "Fundamentals of Language". The Hague/Paris: Mouton, Harvard University and Morris Halle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
1). Edward Jayne. "The Metaphor-Metonymy Binarism"
"Before interdisciplinarity in either the disciplinary producing or disciplinary-circumscribing senses could manifest itself, disciplinarity itself had to take on its peculiarly modern form. Any assessment of interdisciplinarity - multi - and trans-, noncritical and critical- will benefit from an appreciation of this background.
Prior to the modern period, learning exhibited a kind of unity that might be called predisciplinary. Aristotle, it is true, introduced distinctions between logic, physics, and ethics, but these were never of a kind to raise the possibility of cross-disciplinary formations such as 'physical ethics.' During the Middle Ages, the division of the artes liberales into grammar, rhetoric, dialectic (the trivium), arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music (the quadrivium) ensured that the education of 'free men' included all the knowledge and skills needed to exercise their social roles. Insofar as it existed, disciplinary specialization was present more in the 'servile arts' of artisans and tradesmen. Not even teachers of the liberal arts became specialists in their different branches, because the idea of, for example, possessing arithmetic without grammar would have been considered a deformation of the mind. In the monastery schools, the unfettered pursuit of knowledge was viewed skeptically, criticized as curiositas, and therefore subject to disciplinization in a premodern behavioral sense. Only at the end of the Middle Ages, as the infinite pursuit of disciplinary knowledge took on the character of a spiritual activity, would Renaissance men become necessary to cross boundaries and synthesize diverse areas of learning."
(Robert Frodeman and Carl Mitcham, 2007, p.508)
 Frodeman, R. and C. Mitcham (2007). "New Directions in Interdisciplinarity: Broad, Deep, and Critical." Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 27(6).
"Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker [ethos]; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind [pathos]; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself [logos]. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible."
(Aristotle 1356a 2,3, translation by W. Rhys Roberts)
Aristotle, Book I - Chapter 2 : Aristotle's Rhetoric (hypertextual resource compiled by Lee Honeycutt)
"naked city's fragments are linked by arrows, but fragments which are linked to each other are in different orientations and do not have any logical or straightforward relation to each other. the fragments do not include all of paris and the distance of the gaps between fragments do not illustrate the real distance between fragments. the arrows, while facilitating the egress of our imaginary psychogeographical wanderer, also seems to put spatial distance between the fragments, creating the gap, which is like what Michel de Certeau (chapter on Walking in the City - The Practice of Everyday Life) describes as a procedure of 'Asyndeton', or 'opening gaps in the spatial continuum' and 'retaining only selected parts of it that amount almost to relics'."
"While [Critical Thinking] is being more and more widely recognized as a liberating force in education and a powerful resource in one's personal and civic life, the burgeoning national interest in developing students' CT has deep historic roots. The educational goal of teaching students to reason well and willingly can be traced back through the eighteenth century Enlightenment, the Renaissance, the medieval focus on logical argumentation, the North African and Roman preparation of jurists and lawyers, and the Aristotelian and Socratic concern for logic, rhetoric, and warranted assertibility.
there is a growing consensus that a complete approach to developing college students into good critical thinkers must include the nurturing of the disposition toward CT. Some might argue that cultivating the disposition is necessary before implanting the skills, but a developmental perspective would suggest that skills and dispositions are mutually reinforced and, hence, should be explicitly taught and modeled together. In either case, common sense tells us that a strong overall disposition toward CT is integral to insuring the use of CT skills outside the narrow instructional setting. Motivational theory (Lewin, 1935) provides the theoretical grounds for the assumption that the disposition to value and utilize CT would impel an individual to achieve mastery over CT skills, being motivated to close the gap between what is valued and what is attained."
(Peter A. Facione, Carol A. Giancarlo, Noreen C. Facione, Joanne Gainen)
Facione, PA, Sánchez, (Giancarlo) CA, Facione, NC, & Gainen, J., (1995). Journal of General Education. Volume 44, Number 1, pp. 1-25. [This PDF made available with the permission of the publisher. See journal front-matter for information on copy costs.]