Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'Reflexivity' keyword pg.1 of 3
21 JUNE 2013

Photobombing: foregrounding the constructed reality of photographic scenes





breaking the fourth wallconstructed reality • diminish • distracting attentiondistracting behaviourdistraction • divert attention • extradiegeticfocus • foregrounding constructedness • grab our attentionhuman behaviourhumourintertextuality • non-diegetic • out of the spotlight • photobomb • photobombing • photographic portraitplayfulnessprankreflexive foregroundingreflexivitysnapshotssurprise • the space of the photograph • trivialisationundermine • upstage • upstagingworld of the image


Simon Perkins
19 JANUARY 2013

Hermeneutics: where meaning is inter-subjectively created

"Hermeneutic theory is a member of the social subjectivist paradigm where meaning is inter–subjectively created, in contrast to the empirical universe of assumed scientific realism (Berthon et al. 2002). Other approaches within this paradigm are social phenomenology and ethnography. As part of the interpretative research family, hermeneutics focuses on the significance that an aspect of reality takes on for the people under study. Hermeneutics focuses on defining shared linguistic meaning for a representation or symbol.

In order to reach shared understanding as proposed in hermeneutic theory, subjects must have access to shared linguistic and interpretative resources (Marshall et al. 2001). However, hermeneutic theory also posits that linguistic meaning is likely open to infinite interpretation and reinterpretation due to the interpretative ambiguity coming from presuppositions, to the conditions of usage different from authorial intention, and to the evolution of words (Marshall et al. 2001).

Due to its interpretive nature, hermeneutics cannot be approached using a pre–determined set of criteria that is applied in a mechanical fashion (Klein et al. 1999). However, a meta–principal [sic], known as the hermeneutic circle, guides the hermeneutic approach where the process of understanding moves from parts of a whole to a global understanding of the whole and back to individual parts in an iterative manner (Klein et al. 1999). This meta–principal allows the development of a complex whole of shared meanings between subjects, or between researchers and their subjects (Klein et al. 1999).

Other co–existing principles that may help assure rigorous interpretive analysis involve: a) understanding the subject according to its social and historical context, b) assessing the historical social construction between the researcher and the subject, c) relating ideographic details to general theoretical concepts through abstraction and generalization, d) being sensitive to potential pre–conceptual theoretical contradictions between research design and actual findings, e) being aware of possible multiple interpretations among participants for a given sequence of events, and f) being conscious of potential biases or systematic distortions in the subject's narratives (Klein et al. 1999)."

(IS Theory, 15 November 2011, Information Systems PhD Preparation Program of the Marriott School of Management of Brigham Young University)


abstraction and generalisation • biases • Brigham Young University • empirical universe • ethnography • evolution of words • global understanding • Heinz Klein • hermeneutic approach • hermeneutic circlehermeneutic theoryhermeneuticshermeneutische Spiralehermeneutischer Zirkel • historical social construction • ideographic details • infinite interpretation • inter-subjective • interpretation • interpretative ambiguity • interpretive nature • interpretive researchintersubjectivityiterative cycle • iterative manner • linguistic meaning • meaning • meta-principle • Michael Myers • multiple interpretations • Nick Marshall • phenomenology • pre-conceptual theoretical contradictions • presuppositions • realityreflexivityreinterpretation • rigorous interpretive analysis • scientific realism • shared interpretative resources • shared linguistic • shared linguistic meaning • shared meaningsshared understanding • social and historical context • social phenomenology • social subjectivism • social subjectivist paradigm • systematic distortions • theoretical concepts • theoretical contradictions • Tim Brady • understanding


Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2011

Wolfenstein 3D: Pac-Man intragame

"An intragame is a game within the game, e.g. the Pachinko machine in Duke Nukem 3D [or a Pac–Man level in Wolfenstein 3D]. Since computer games are based on simulator technology that could mix or include any other game in addition to the main game, the main game will be the only one classified."

(Aarseth, Smedstad and Sunnanå, 2003, p.49)

1). Video capture of secret Pac–Man level within Episode 3 of Wolfenstein 3D.

2). Table of Contents for Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings, DiGRA and Utrecht University

3). Espen Aarseth, Solveig Marie Smedstad and Lise Sunnanå (2003). 'A multi–dimensional typology of games', in Copier, Marinka; Raessens, Joost, Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference Proceedings, DiGRA and Utrecht University



19923Daction hero • Adrian Carmack • Apogee SoftwareCastle Wolfensteincomputer gamesdigital cultureDiGRADuke Nukem 3Deaster eggEspen Aarsethfirst-person point of viewfirst-person shooterFPS • game genres • game within the game • gameplaygames • id Software • intragame • Lise Sunnana • mise-en-abymeNaziPac-Man • Pachinko • PC gamesreflexivityrun and gunScott Miller • shareware • Solveig Marie Smedstad • tribute • typology of games • video gamevirtual environmentsWolfenstein 3D


Simon Perkins
21 MARCH 2011

Mise en Abyme: the mirror in the text

"In a work of art, I rather like to find thus transposed, at the level of the characters, the subject of the work itself. Nothing sheds more light on the work or displays the proportions of the whole work more accurately. Thus, in paintings by Memling or Quentin Metzys, a small dark convex mirror reflects, in its turn, the interior of the room in which the action of the painting takes place. Thus, in a slightly different way, in Velasquez's Las Meninas. Finally, in literature, there is the scene in which a play is acted in Hamlet; this also happens in many other plays. In Wilhelm Meister, there are the puppet shows and the festivities in the castle. In Fall of the House of Usher, there is the piece that is read to Roderick, etc. None of these examples is absolutely accurate. What would be more accurate, and what would explain better what I'd wanted to do in my Cabiers, in Narcisse and La Tentative, would be a comparison with the device from heraldry that involves putting a second representation of the original shield 'en abyme' within it."

(Lucien Dällenbach, 1977 via Once I Metablog on Metafiction)

Dällenbach, Lucien (1977). 'The Mirror in the Text'. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fig.1 Diego Velázquez 'Las Meninas'



1656 • Andre Gide • Diego Velazquez • Fall of the House of Usher • Hamlet • Hans Memling • heraldic shield • heraldry • infinite regressionintertextualityLas Meninasmeta-painting • metablog • metafiction • metaplay • metatheatre • metatheatricalitymirrormise-en-abyme • Quentin Metzys • recursionreflexivityrepetitionrepresentation • Wilhelm Meister • William Shakespearework of art


Simon Perkins

Mediated environments: we must learn to write themselves into being

"In everyday interactions, the body serves as a critical site of identity performance. In conveying who we are to other people, we use our bodies to project information about ourselves.[32] This is done through movement, clothes, speech, and facial expressions. What we put forward is our best effort at what we want to say about who we are. Yet while we intend to convey one impression, our performance is not always interpreted as we might expect. Through learning to make sense of others' responses to our behavior, we can assess how well we have conveyed what we intended. We can then alter our performance accordingly. This process of performance, interpretation, and adjustment is what Erving Goffman calls impression management,[33] and is briefly discussed in the introduction to this volume. Impression management is a part of a larger process where people seek to define a situation[34] through their behavior. People seek to define social situations by using contextual cues from the environment around them. Social norms emerge out of situational definitions, as people learn to read cues from the environment and the people present to understand what is appropriate behavior.

Learning how to manage impressions is a critical social skill that is honed through experience. Over time, we learn how to make meaning out of a situation, others' reactions, and what we are projecting of ourselves. As children, we learn that actions on our part prompt reactions by adults; as we grow older, we learn to interpret these reactions and adjust our behavior. Diverse social environments help people develop these skills because they force individuals to reevaluate the signals they take for granted.

The process of learning to read social cues and react accordingly is core to being socialized into a society. While the process itself begins at home for young children, it is critical for young people to engage in broader social settings to develop these skills. Of course, how children are taught about situations and impression management varies greatly by culture,[35] but these processes are regularly seen as part of coming of age. While no one is ever a true master of impression management, the teenage years are ripe with opportunities to develop these skills.

In mediated environments, bodies are not immediately visible and the skills people need to interpret situations and manage impressions are different. As Jenny Sundén argues, people must learn to write themselves into being.[36] Doing so makes visible how much we take the body for granted. While text, images, audio, and video all provide valuable means for developing a virtual presence, the act of articulation differs from how we convey meaningful information through our bodies. This process also makes explicit the self–reflexivity that Giddens argues is necessary for identity formation, but the choices individuals make in crafting a digital body highlight the self–monitoring that Foucault describes.[37]

In some sense, people have more control online–they are able to carefully choose what information to put forward, thereby eliminating visceral reactions that might have seeped out in everyday communication. At the same time, these digital bodies are fundamentally coarser, making it far easier to misinterpret what someone is expressing. Furthermore, as Amy Bruckman shows, key information about a person's body is often present online, even when that person is trying to act deceptively; for example, people are relatively good at detecting when someone is a man even when they profess to be a woman online.[38] Yet because mediated environments reveal different signals, the mechanisms of deception differ.[39] "

(Danah Boyd 2008, p.128–129)

[32] Fred Davis, Fashion, Culture and Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).

[33] Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 1956).

[34] Erving Goffman, Behavior in Public Places (New York: The Free Press, 1963).

[35] Jean Briggs, Inuit Morality Play: The Emotional Education of a Three–Year–Old (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999).

[36] Jenny Sundén, Material Virtualities (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2003).

[37] See David Buckingham's introduction to this volume for a greater discussion of this.

[38] Joshua Berman and Amy Bruckman, The Turing Game: Exploring Identity in an Online Environment, Convergence 7, no. 3 (2001): 83–102.

[39] Judith Donath, Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community, Communities in Cyberspace, eds. Marc Smith and Peter Kollock (London: Routledge, 1999).

1). Boyd, D. (2008). Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. D. Buckingham. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 119–142.



Simon Perkins

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