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Which clippings match 'Robert Rauschenberg' keyword pg.1 of 1
08 APRIL 2011

The typography of Jean-Luc Godard

"To me watching the films of Jean–Luc Godard is like watching a white Rauschenberg painting or listing to John Cage's '4:33': it isn't something I do for entertainment. They're historically significant because he broke all the rules in the book, but I just don't enjoy watching them. Since I only add titles from films I've seen myself there weren't many Godard films present in the Movie title stills collection.

On december 3rd, Atelier Carvalho Bernau released a free typeface to celebrate Godard's 80th birthday. The typeface was inspired by the title sequences of Godard's 'Made in U.S.A' (1966) and '2 ou 3 choses que je sais d'elle' (1967). When I started googling I found surprisingly few stills or videos from Godard's films, that's why I decided to add the most interesting ones to the Movie title stills collection.

I've located almost all films from the earlier part of Godard's career and took all stills containing typography: titles from the opening title sequences, intertitles and end ('Fin') titles. Like silent films Godard used lots of intertitles, which make his films much more typographic than other films from the '60s and 70's.

It's quite interesting to see the designs evolve. In this digital age it's refreshing to see type that isn't made on a computer: the imperfect and handmade look of the letterforms, the bad kerning, the large gaps between letters and words, the justified blocks of text, the awkwardly dotted capital I's. Even when he used an existing typeface – like Antique Olive in 'Week end' (1967) – the letterforms look as if they were cut out with an Exacto knife.

Sauve qui peut (la vie) (1980) is the last film featuring custom typefaces. In his later films Godard used existing typefaces like Futura, Univers, Helvetica and Garamond."

(Christian Annyas, 16 December 2010)



Simon Perkins
07 JULY 2009

Victoria and Albert Museum: A History of Computer Art

"One of the most famous works to come out of Bell Labs was Leon Harmon and Ken Knowlton's Studies in Perception, 1967, also known as Nude.

Harmon and Knowlton decided to cover the entire wall of a senior colleague's office with a large print, the image of which was made up of small electronic symbols that replaced the grey scale in a scanned photograph. Only by stepping back from the image (which was 12 feet wide), did the symbols merge to form the figure of a reclining nude. Although the image was hastily removed after their colleague returned, and even more hastily dismissed by the institution's PR department, it was leaked into the public realm, first by appearing at a press conference in the loft of Robert Rauschenberg, and later emblazoned across the New York Times. What had started life as a work–place prank became an overnight sensation."

Fig.1 Leon Harmon and Ken Knowlton, 'Studies in Perception', 1997 (original image 1967). Museum no. E.963–2008. Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric Prince.



1967ASCIIASCII-Art • Bell Laboratories • Bell Labscomputer history • electronic symbols • Kenneth Knowlton • large print • Leon Harmon • New York Timesnude • overnight sensation • reclining nudeRobert Rauschenberg • Studies in Perception (1967) • wall • work-place prank


Simon Perkins
03 JANUARY 2004

Ad-Hoc Design: Frank Gehry's Familian Residence

"Adhering to the spirit of ad–hocism... Frank Gehry's own [Familian Residence] house in Los Angeles is rather a collision of parts, built to stay but with a deliberately unfinished, ordinary builderlike sensibility of parts. An existing and very pedestrian two–story gambrel–roofed clapboard residence had much of its interior removed and walls stripped back to their original two–by– four stud frame, beams, and rafters. It was then expanded by wrapping the old house with a metal slipcover creating a new set of spaces around its perimeter. The antirefinement type enclosure is built of the most mundane materials, corrugated aluminum metal siding, plywood, glass and chain–link fencing, and deliberately has randomly slanted lines and angled protrusions. Although the house retains a certain minimalist sense, the effort here is cluttered expressionistic and the sensibility is freely intended as artistically intuitive, of accident not resolved. The palette is anti–high–tech in preference for a visual presence that is off–the–shelf and ordinary 'cheap tech.' Gehry considers buildings as sculpture with the freedom from restraint that this might imply, hence it is not surprising that his work has an affinity to the collages of Robert Rauschenberg, especially in the artist's ripped cardboard assemblage period of the 1970s. (Gehry himself designed a line of corrugated cardboard furniture.)"With the original house almost intact formwise, Gehry, in effect, lifted back the skin to reveal the building as layers, with new forms breaking out and tilting away from the original, to create a forerunner of the Deconstructionist spirit of the eighties. It is almost an idea of 'wrapping' à la Christo, but where Christo seeks through a veil to transform the original to a new sense of being and meaning, Gehry rather produces a discontinuous juxtaposition where one system collides with another resulting in, to quote Bernard Tschumi, a 'super position or disjunctive disassociation.' Where Johansen assembles technological–like elements freely seeding dialogue through the combination, Gehry, through collaging, also basically (but with a different aesthetic) derives an approach to design from the methodology and respect for construction and its architectonic potential as a form maker and space generator."
(Paul Heyer, p.228–230)

Paul Heyer (1993). 'American Architecture: Ideas and Ideologies in the Late Twentieth Century'. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. ISBN 0–442–01328–0. LC 92–18415. NA2750.H48 1993. discussion p228–230. exterior photo, p229.



1978accidentad-hoc designarchitectonicBernard Tschumi • Christo • collage • collide • collisionconstructiondialogue • discontinuous • disjunctive disassociation • Familian Residence • Frank Gehryhaphazard • Heyer • houseimprovised methodjerry-built • Johansen • juxtapositionlayerminimalism • off-the-shelf • randomRobert Rauschenbergspace
03 JANUARY 2004

Rauschenberg: Design by Improvisation

"Much critical commentary on Rauschenberg has focused on the so–called combine paintings of the late 1950s and early 1960s. These were the works––most notably, the horizontally disposed painting Monogram, sporting a stuffed Angora goat, and the vertically disposed painting Bed, incorporating a real quilt and pillow––that briefly earned Rauschenberg a reputation as something of an enfant terrible and as one of the leading exponents of a new post–Duchampian avant–garde. He was singled out in this way, along with Cage and Marcel Duchamp and the unlikely Jean Tinguely, in a widely read book by Calvin Tomkins published in 1968 under the title Ahead of the Game: Four Versions of the Avant–Garde. (6) Rauschenberg's more materially encumbered combine paintings came to be seen as effecting a radical restructuring of painting, with the work no longer functioning as formalized entity set in the viewer's line of sight to evoke a fictional pictorial space but rather as something much more literal and insistently materialized, a flat support to which objects, images, and paint were attached."
(Alex Potts)

Alex Potts, Reviewed work(s): Random Order: Robert Rauschenberg and the Neo–Avant–Garde by Branden Joseph, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 87, No. 1 (Mar., 2005), pp. 167–170 (review consists of 4 pages), Published by: College Art Association.



1959ad-hoc • aleatoricism • angora goat • avant-gardecanvas • combine paintings • foundfound objectgoatimprovised methodjunk art • Monogram • objet trouvepaintingreadymadeRobert Rauschenberg • tyre

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