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Which clippings match 'Programme' keyword pg.1 of 1
19 APRIL 2010

The Jacquard loom: automation through stored programmes

"In consequence of the Industrial Revolution, the late 18th century had witnessed a considerable expansion in the automation of processes that had once been the preserve of small groups of highly skilled workers employed in so–called 'cottage industries'. The textile industry was one sphere were industrialisation had rendered obsolete such skills. Whereas, prior to the development of mechanical looms and weaving machines, lengths of fabric had to be woven slowly by hand, the advent of powered tools for carrying out this task meant that quantities of fabric could be mass–produced at a far quicker rate than previously, thereby reducing its expense. There was one area, however, where the new machines could not compete with skilled manual workers: in the generation of cloth containing anything other than a plain (or at best extremely simple) woven pattern. The Jacquard Loom provided a solution to this problem so that, with it in use, extremely intricate patterns and pictures could be automatically woven into cloth at much the same rate as a plain length of fabric could be generated. The key idea behind Jacquard's loom was to control the action of the weaving process by interfacing the behaviour of the loom to an encoding of the pattern to be reproduced. In order to do this Jacquard arranged for the pattern to be depicted as a groups of holes 'punched' into a sequence of pasteboard card. Each card contained the same number of rows and columns, the presence or absence of a hole was detected mechanically and used to determine the actions of the loom. By combining a 'tape' of cards together the Jacquard loom was able to weave (and reproduce) patterns of great complexity, e.g. a surviving example is a black and white silk portrait of Jacquard woven under the control of a 10,000 card 'program'."

(Paul E. Dunne, University of Liverpool)

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TAGS

1801 • 18th centuryanalogue correspondenceautomation • cottage industries • devicefabrichistoryindustrial heritageindustrial revolutionindustrialisationJacquard loom • Joseph Marie Jacquard • loompatternpioneerprogrammable deviceprogrammepunch cardspunched-card systemreproductionsequencesolutiontechnologytextile industrytextilesweave • weaving machine

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 DECEMBER 2008

MobiTV: Mobile Content Delivery

"MobiTV's end–to–end platform technology delivers live television, premium and primetime programming, video–on–demand, satellite and digital music services from the top broadcast and cable television networks and major music labels to more than 4 million users worldwide."
(MobiTV)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 JANUARY 2004

Volumetric Notation: National Theatre of Japan

"Hypothesis: How to deconstruct opera and architecture so as to 'think' their concepts and simultaneously to observe them from an external and detached point of view? How to devise a configuration of concepts which is systematic and irreducible, that each concept intervenes at some decisive moment of the work? How to question the unity of a building without re–course either to a composition of articulated and formalised elements or to a random accumulation of isolated programmatic fragments? To play on limits without being enclosed within limits? To relate to other operas while referring only to one's own? Juxtaposition We have therefore abandoned traditional rules of composition and harmony, replacing them with an organisation based on breaking apart the traditional components of theatre and opera house and developing a new 'tonality' or 'sound'. No more artful articulations between auditorium, stage, foyer, grand staircase; in–stead, a new pleasure through the parallel juxtaposition of indeterminate cultural meanings, as opposed to fixed historicist practices. Functional constraints are not translated into a composition of symbolic units, but are extrapolated into a score of programmatic strips, analogous to the lines of a musical score, each containing the main activities and related spaces."

(Bernard Tschumi, 1987)

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TAGS

Bernard Tschumicompositionfragmentharmonyhistoricistjuxtaposition • National Theatre of Japan • operaPapadakisprogrammescoretheatre
05 JANUARY 2004

Simultaneous Cities: Tokyo And Los Angeles

"Item 1: Formulation and programming of simultaneous structures in Los Angeles and Tokyo that serve as thresholds to both cities vis–a–vis the proposed 'Mag Lev' transportation tunnel beneath the Pacific Ocean. An investigation of the invisible realm that exists between the two cities.Item 2: Advancements in transportation, telecommunications and the like are certainly in abundance as the century draws to a close. Yet architecture seems little affected by the onslaught of `progress.' Item 3: Tokyo and Los Angeles are two cities emerging as centres of extreme import as we move beyond the 20th century. Although they are by no means the only two, they do epitomize much of the dichotomies and disparities of the contemporary urban condition. Providing such a service between these two places certainly can be viewed as a perversity of a world caught up in the 'instantaneous' and the conquest of desire.Item 4: the self has always been set against an abstraction of the cosmos and that has emerged from reflection on the mapping of our tangible world. Here then is yet a further reduction of time and space as the experiential is all but eliminated."

[Papadakis, Dr Andreas (ed). 1995 Deconstruction III: Architectural Design Profile No. 87, London, UK: Academy Group. 1854902539]

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TAGS

20th centuryabstractionarchitecturecitycosmosdichotomyinstantaneousinvisibleLos Angeles • Mag Lev • Pacific OceanPapadakisprogrammeprogress • realm • reductionsimultaneousspacespeculative designstructuretangibletelecommunicationthresholdtimeTokyotransport • tunne
30 DECEMBER 2003

Channel Surfing / Web Surfing

The experience of television channel surfing and Web surfing is a non–linear and open–ended activity. Individual Web pages and television programmes stop being distinct entities as their aspects merge with all other aspects.

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TAGS

channel • merge • non-linearopen-endedprogrammesurfingtelevisionTV
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