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Which clippings match 'History Of Computing' keyword pg.1 of 2
13 OCTOBER 2015

Calculating Ada The Countess of Computers

"Ada Lovelace was a most unlikely computer pioneer. In this film, Dr Hannah Fry tells the story of Ada's remarkable life. Born in the early 19th century Ada was a countess of the realm, a scandalous socialite and an 'enchantress of numbers'. The film is an enthralling tale of how a life infused with brilliance, but blighted by illness and gambling addiction, helped give rise to the modern era of computing.

Hannah traces Ada's unlikely union with the father of computers, Charles Babbage. Babbage designed the world's first steam-powered computers - most famously the analytical engine - but it was Ada who realised the full potential of these new machines. During her own lifetime Ada was most famous for being the daughter of romantic poet Lord Byron ('mad, bad and dangerous to know'). It was only with the advent of modern computing that Ada's understanding of their flexibility and power (that they could be far more than mere number crunchers) was recognised as truly visionary. Hannah explores how Ada's unique inheritance - poetic imagination and rational logic - made her the ideal prophet of the digital age."

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19th century • Ada Lovelace • analytical engine • BBC Fourcalculator • Charles Babbage • computer age • computer pioneer • computing history • countess • difference engine • difference equations • differential equations • finite-difference methods (FDM) • flexibility and power • Hannah Fry • history of computation • history of computingJacquard loom • Lord Byron • mechanical bird • modern computing • number crunching • numerical methods • pioneering womenpioneers in computer science • poetic imagination • poetical science • punch cards • rational logic • scientific age • steam-powered computer • thinking machines • Victorian engineering • visionarywomen in technologywomen programmers

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
14 SEPTEMBER 2013

Four women share stories from UK computing's early days

"In three clips from past interviews, Joyce Wheeler and Margaret Marrs talk about their time using EDSAC at Cambridge, and Mary Coombs tells of programming LEO, the world's first business computer. And in a fourth brand new film, Dame Stephanie Shirley shares her extraordinary tale of founding Freelance Programmers, one of the UK's first software startups."

(Lynette Webb, 5 September 2013, Google Europe Blog)

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19591962 • business computer • business womencomputer history • computing heritage • computing history • computing industry • Dina St Johnston • EDSAC • electronic computer • Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) • Freelance Programmers (IT firm) • gender equalityGoogle (GOOG) • Google Europe Blog • history of computing • home office • home working • inspirational stories • Joyce Wheeler • kindertransport • Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) • Margaret Marrs • Mary Coombs • pioneering womenpioneers in computer science • Stephanie Shirley • University of Cambridge • Vaughan Programming Services (IT firm) • women and technologywomen in businesswomen in leadership positionswomen in technologywomen programmers • working from home

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
25 APRIL 2013

Lillian Schwartz: computer-mediated art pioneer

"Produced by Larry Keating for AT&T. 'THE ARTIST AND THE COMPUTER is an excellent introductory informational film that dispels some of the 'mystery' of computer–art technology, as it clarifies the necessary human input of integrity, artistic sensibilities, and aesthetics…. Ms. Schwartz's voice over narration explains what she hoped to accomplish in the excerpts from a number of her films and gives insight into the artist's problems and decisions…. I would recommend THE ARTIST AND THE COMPUTER for all grade levels, in classes on filmmaking, art appreciation, and human values.' – John Canemaker, Film News, Animation, Jan.–Feb. 1978. Cine Golden Eagle 1976; New York Film Festival; USIA – Animation and Education 1977; Annual Creative Problem Solving Institute, 1980. Recent screening at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, December 10, 2012."

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
09 JANUARY 2013

Roberto Busa and the Invention of the Machine-Generated Concord

"This is a story from early in the technological revolution, when the application was out searching for the hardware, from a time before the Internet, a time before the PC, before the chip, before the mainframe. From a time even before programming itself.

Tasman's 1957 prophecy was no shot in the dark. His view of the future was a projection from his recent past. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. had assigned him in 1949 to be IBM liaison and support person for a young Jesuit's daring project to produce an index to the complete writings of St. Thomas Aquinas. First, Tasman's thesis, as subsequent history turned out, was a huge understatement; and second, it essentially defines the first large invention of Father Roberto Busa, S. J., namely, to look at 'tools developed primarily for science and commerce' and to see other uses for them. As will be seen, this was a case of fortune favoring the prepared mind. Redirecting scholarship, he essentially invented the machine–generated concordance, the first of which he had published in 1951.

Father Busa, of course, is best known as the producer of the landmark 56–volume Index Thomisticus. As he began this work in 1946, and produced a sample proof–of–concept, machine–generated concordance in 1951, his professional life spans the entire computing chapter in the history of scholarship. Emphasis in this article will be on the early steps."

(Thomas Nelson Winter, January 1999)

Published in The Classical Bulletin 75:1 (1999), pp. 3–20. Copyright © 1999 Bolchazy–Carducci Publishers, Inc.

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1946194919511957 • analytical indexes • automatically analysing • automatically indexing • computing • concordance • concordances • Dead Sea Scrolls • electronic data processing machine • fortune favouring the prepared mind • history of computinghistory of scholarshipIBM • IBM 705 • Index Thomisticus • indexing • International Business Machines Corporation • literary data processing • machine-generated concordance • Paul Tasman • printed works • proof of concept • prophecy • punch cardspunched-card system • rapid compilation • Roberto Busa • science and commerce • St Thomas Aquinas • Summa Theologica of St Thomas Aquinas • technological revolution • Thomas Nelson Winter • Thomas Watson • tools developed for science and commerce

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 DECEMBER 2012

Sinclair ZX81: semigraphical / pseudographical characters

"If you press GRAPHICS (shifted 9) then the cursor will come up as : this means graphics mode. If you type in a symbol it will appear in its inverse video form, & this will go on until you press GRAPHICS again or NEWLINE. RUBOUT will have its usual meaning. Be careful not to lose the cursor  amongst all the inverse video characters you've just typed in. ...

Right at the beginning are space & ten patterns of black, white & grey blobs; further on there are eleven more. These are called the graphics symbols & are used for drawing pictures. You can enter these from the keyboard, using graphics mode (except for space, which is an ordinary symbol using the  cursor; the black square is inverse space). You use the 20 keys that have graphics symbols written on them. For instance, suppose you want the symbol , which is on the T key. Press GRAPHICS to get the  cursor, & then press shifted T. From the previous description of the graphics mode, you would expect to get an inverse video symbol; but shifted T is normally <>, a token, & tokens have no inverses: so you get the graphics symbol  instead."

(Steven Vickers, 1981, Sinclair Research Limited)

Fig.1 "graphics mode" table from Steven Vickers (1981). "Sinclair ZX81 BASIC Programming", Second Edition 1981, Copyright 1980 Sinclair Research Limited (converted to HTML by Robin Stuart).

2). Matthew Eagles (2008). "ZX81 VDU" TrueType font which replicates the letters, numbers etc. displayed on the screen of the ZX81.

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1980s19818-bitbasic geometric shapesblack and white • block graphics • computer historygeometric figuresgeometric shapes • graphic symbols • graphical building block • graphics mode • history of computinghome computerindustrial archaeologymanualmonotone • PETSCII • pictorial systemspixel matrix • pseudographics • semigraphical characters • semigraphics • Sinclair Research Ltd • Sinclair ZX80 • Sinclair ZX81 • sixels • symbolsymbolstypefacevintage technologyvisualisationZX81

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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