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Which clippings match 'Aid To Understanding' keyword pg.1 of 1
12 NOVEMBER 2014

Metaphors as Problem-solving Aids

"Metaphors facilitate the understanding of an unfamiliar situation in terms of a known situation (Ortony, 1991). By means of metaphors, it is possible to make reference to what is clearly understood in order to elucidate the unknown. Basically, metaphors constitute an uncommon juxtaposition of the familiar and the unusual. They induce the discovery of innovative associations that broaden the human capacity for interpretation (Lakoff, 1987, 1993). For that reason, metaphors are seen as valuable aids in problem–solving tasks.

The relevance of metaphors to problem–solving is pertinent to three fundamental steps (Gentner, Bowdle, Wolff, & Boronat, 2001). The first step consists of extracting a variety of unfamiliar concepts from remote domains, where possible relationships with the problem at hand are not always evident. The second step involves establishing a mapping of deep or high–level relationships between the metaphorical concept and the problem. Correspondences are identified by means of abstractions and generalizations. Relationships of secondary importance are discarded, and only structural correspondences between the metaphorical source and the problem are set up. The last step deals with transferring and applying structural correspondences associated with the metaphorical source to the problem at hand, which at the end generally leads to a novel solution."

(Hernan Pablo Casakin, 2007)

Hernan Pablo Casakin (2007). "Metaphors in Design Problem Solving: Implications for Creativity." International Journal of Design 1(2).



abstraction and generalisationaid to understanding • analogous correspondence • Andrew Ortony • Brian Bowdle • Consuelo Boronat • Dedre Gentner • George Lakoff • innovative associations • International Journal of Design • metaphorical concept • metaphorical representation • metaphorical source • novel solution • Phillip Wolff • problem abstraction • problem at hand • problem-solving • problem-solving aids • remote domains • structural correspondences • theory buildingthinking tools • uncommon juxtaposition • unfamiliar concepts • unifying metaphorunifying strategyvisual punvisual rhetoric


Simon Perkins
13 JULY 2012

Trevor Hussey and Patrick Smith: The Uses of Learning Outcomes

"This paper argues that learning outcomes need to be reclaimed from their current use as devices for monitoring and audit, and returned to their proper use in aiding good teaching and learning. We require a broader, flexible and more realistic understanding of learning outcomes, better suited to the realities of the classroom and of practical use to those teachers who wish to respond to the enthusiasm of their students. To this end, a new model is produced that starts from the idea of an articulated curriculum, and embraces both intended and emergent learning outcomes. The model employs the distinction between predicted and unpredicted learning outcomes, together with the distinction between those that are desirable and those that are undesirable. The resulting account is intended to aid understanding of the nature and proper use of learning outcomes in teaching and learning."

(Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith, p.357, 2003)

Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith (2003). "The Uses of Learning Outcomes", Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2003, pp.357–368, ISSN 1356–2517 (print)/ISSN 1470–1294 (online)/03/030357–12, 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd., DOI: 10.1080/1356251032000088574


accountabilityadministriviaaid to understandingambiguityambiguity and uncertainty • articulated curriculum • auditaudit culture • auditing • best practicebureaucracy • constructive alignment • contiguous learning outcomes • corridor of tolerance • curriculum designcurriculum development • David Megginson • desirable outcomes • effective alignment • ELO • emergent curriculum • emergent learning outcomes • enhancing learning • experienced teachers • flexibility • good teaching and learning • higher education • ILO • incidental learning outcomes • indecisiveness • intended learning outcomes • John Biggs • learnerslearning and teaching • learning moments • learning outcomesmonitoring • Patrick Smith • pedagogic recontextualising fieldpedagogypractical usepredictability • predicted learning outcomes • QAA • realistic understanding • realities of the classroom • related learning outcomes • responding to enthusiasm • student enthusiasmstudent learningteachersteaching • Teaching in Higher Education (journal) • Trevor Hussey • uncertainty • unpredicted learning outcomes


Simon Perkins

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