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Which clippings match 'International Journal Of Design' keyword pg.1 of 1
12 NOVEMBER 2014

Metaphors as Problem-solving Aids

"Metaphors facilitate the understanding of an unfamiliar situation in terms of a known situation (Ortony, 1991). By means of metaphors, it is possible to make reference to what is clearly understood in order to elucidate the unknown. Basically, metaphors constitute an uncommon juxtaposition of the familiar and the unusual. They induce the discovery of innovative associations that broaden the human capacity for interpretation (Lakoff, 1987, 1993). For that reason, metaphors are seen as valuable aids in problem–solving tasks.

The relevance of metaphors to problem–solving is pertinent to three fundamental steps (Gentner, Bowdle, Wolff, & Boronat, 2001). The first step consists of extracting a variety of unfamiliar concepts from remote domains, where possible relationships with the problem at hand are not always evident. The second step involves establishing a mapping of deep or high–level relationships between the metaphorical concept and the problem. Correspondences are identified by means of abstractions and generalizations. Relationships of secondary importance are discarded, and only structural correspondences between the metaphorical source and the problem are set up. The last step deals with transferring and applying structural correspondences associated with the metaphorical source to the problem at hand, which at the end generally leads to a novel solution."

(Hernan Pablo Casakin, 2007)

Hernan Pablo Casakin (2007). "Metaphors in Design Problem Solving: Implications for Creativity." International Journal of Design 1(2).

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TAGS

abstraction and generalisationaid to understanding • analogous correspondence • Andrew Ortony • Brian Bowdle • Consuelo Boronat • Dedre Gentner • George Lakoff • innovative associations • International Journal of Design • metaphorical concept • metaphorical representation • metaphorical source • novel solution • Phillip Wolff • problem abstraction • problem at hand • problem-solving • problem-solving aids • remote domains • structural correspondences • theory buildingthinking tools • uncommon juxtaposition • unfamiliar concepts • unifying metaphorunifying strategyvisual punvisual rhetoric

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 APRIL 2013

Navimation: Exploring Time, Space & Motion in the Design of Screen Based Interfaces

"Interface design has often been considered a subsection of interaction design (Moggridge, 2007; Löwgren & Stolterman, 2004; Bagnara & Crampton Smith, 2006). In the shift from designing objects to designing experiences, interaction design needs to investigate temporal as well as spatial form (Redström, 2001; Mazé & Redström, 2005), and to see computation as basic material.

From a social, cultural and humanistic perspective, studies of the design of interactions and their contexts of use can be understood in terms of mediated communication and the historical, social, playful and aesthetic in digital design (Blythe, Overbeeke, Monk, & Wright, 2003; Lunenfeld, 1999). This approach has been framed as Communication Design (Morrison et al., in press). This mediational perspective of digital communication is informed by studies in new media, social semiotics, socio–cultural studies of learning and work, and practice–based research into multimodal composition in which mediated discourse itself undergoes change through active use (Jones & Norris, 2005; Morrison, in press). This view is distinct from the structuralist and directional or 'transmission' models of communication (e.g., Crilly, Maier, & Clarkson, 2008) that are not rooted in cultural and mediational theory. From a Communication Design perspective, the interface itself mediates; it is understood as socially and culturally constructed and situated. Such a perspective is not very widely articulated in discussions of the interface in design research. Further, few studies exist of dynamic, digital interfaces and their multimodal characteristics from a specifically media and Communication Design view (e.g., Skjulstad, 2007).

In their design activity, interaction designers invest heavily in the shaping of interfaces as symbolic and cultural texts. Alongside this attention to design, and with reference to user–driven studies, we also need to unpack the features and possible functions of these emerging forms of mediated communication. The proliferation of 'movement in the interface' demands that we pay attention to a variety of media types, genre conventions and earlier media, and to the ways that elements of these are combined in different configurations. Social semiotics provides some means for relating the various graphical, animational and kinetic aspects of dynamic interfaces within a wider communicative perspective.3"

(Jon Olav H. Eikenes and Andrew Morrison, 2010)

Jon Olav H. Eikenes and Andrew Morrison (2010). "Navimation: Exploring Time, Space & Motion in the Design of Screen–based Interfaces", International Journal of Design Vol 4, No 1.

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TAGS

2010aesthetic experience • Andrew Monk • Andrew Morrison • animational communication • Anja Maier • Bill Moggridge • communication design • computation as material • cultural perspective • cultural texts • design for the screendesign researchdesigning experiencesdesigning objectsdigital communicationdigital design • dynamic digital interfaces • dynamic interfacesemerging digital media • emerging forms • Erik Stolterman • funology • genre conventions • Gillian Crampton Smith • graphical communication • humanistic perspectiveinteraction designinterface designInternational Journal of Design • Johan Redstrom • Jonas Lowgren • Kees Overbeeke • kinetic bodily logos • Mark Blythe • material thinking • media and communication design • media as material objectsmediated communication • mediated discourse • mediated interaction • mediational perspective • mediational theory • movement in the interface • multimodal characteristics • multimodal compositionmultimodal user interfaces • Nathan Crilly • navimation • new media • P John Clarkson • Peter Lunenfeld • Peter Wrigh • playfulnesspractice-based research • Ramia Maze • Rodney Jones • screen-based interface • Sebastiano Bagnara • Sigrid Norris • situated perspective • social perspective • social semiotics • socio-cultural studies of learning • spatial form • spatial ordersymbolic meaning • Synne Skjulstad • temporal form • transmission model of communicationuser-driven

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 JUNE 2012

International Journal of Design: peer-reviewed and open-access

"The International Journal of Design is a peer–reviewed, open–access journal devoted to publishing research papers in all fields of design, including industrial design, visual communication design, interface design, animation and game design, architectural design, urban design, and other design related fields. It aims to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas and findings from researchers across different cultures and encourages research on the impact of cultural factors on design theory and practice. It also seeks to promote the transfer of knowledge between professionals in academia and industry by emphasizing research in which results are of interest or applicable to design practices."

(International Journal of Design)

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TAGS

affective design • animation • approaches to design • architectural design • computer applications in design • cultural factors on design • design fieldsdesign industrydesign journaldesign management • design methodologies • design practicedesign practicesdesign professionalsdesign researchdesign research journal • design strategy and management • design theoryemotional designergonomic design • ergonomics and perceptions in design • game designglobalisationglobalisation and localisationhuman perception • IJDesign • impact of cultural factors on design theory and practice • industrial designinterface designInternational Journal of Design • journal of design • journal of design research • kansei • kansei engineering • localisation • open-access journal • peer-reviewed journalresearch papers • social-cultural aspects of design • theory and practiceurban designvisual communicationvisual communication design

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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