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22 APRIL 2011

Instant Runoff Voting is 'extremely difficult to manipulate'

"The most striking result is the difference between the manipulability of the Hare [IRV] system and the other systems. Because the [IRV] system considers only 'current' first preferences, it appears to be extremely difficult to manipulate. To be successful, a coalition must usually throw enough support to losing candidates to eliminate the sincere winner (the winner when no preferences are misrepresented) at an early stage, but still leave an agreed upon candidate with sufficient first–place strength to win. This turns out to be quite difficult to do."

(Chamberlin, Cohen and Coombs, 1984)

John R. Chamberlin, Jerry. L. Cohen and Clyde H. Coombs (1984). 'Social Choice Observed: Five Presidential Elections of the American Psychological Association.' The Journal of Politics 46(2): pp. 479–502.

Fig.1 Chair Judge Geraldine Sell, green sweater, sorted ballots with dozens of others during the first day of hand–counting in Minneapolis, Wednesday, Nov. 4, 2009. The hand–counting is required in Minneapolis because of the instant runoff voting process. (MPR Photo/Jeffrey Thompson)

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TAGS

advocacy • agenda manipulation • Alternative Votedemocracydemocratic participation • electoral candidate • fairnessimpartialityInstant Runoff VotingIRV • lawful • legitimate • Parliamentparticipationpolitical partiespoliticsprogressive political changereform our electoral systems • robust • Thomas Hare • unbiased • valid • voting system • winner

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 APRIL 2011

The History of Instant Runoff Voting ('Alternative Vote' in Australia)

"The key the to the development of instant runoff voting (IRV) was the invention of the single transferable vote (STV) in the 1850's by Thomas Hare in England and Carl Andrae in Denmark. The essence of STV is the concept that a citizen would have one vote in a particular contest, but that that vote might be transferred from one candidate to another according to each voter's ranking of candidates, depending on the aggregate result of other voters' ballots. Hare devised this balloting and counting procedure in creating a system of proportional representation.

IRV, however, is not a system of proportional representation. Instead, IRV uses the STV innovation in a winner–take–all context. Instant runoff voting, using a preference ballot, was invented by an American, W. R. Ware, a Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, around 1870. The first known use of IRV in a governmental election was in 1893 in Queensland, Australia. However, this was a modified version of IRV in which all candidates except the top two were eliminated in a batch rather than sequentially, as in the pure form of IRV. The 'staggered runoff' concept that we understand today as IRV was first used in Western Australia in 1908.

IRV, called 'alternative vote' in Australia, came to be used in most Australian legislative elections, although it was superseded by Hare's STV system of proportional representation for the federal Senate. IRV is still used for electing members of the lower house. IRV is also used in other nations, such as Ireland. In the United Kingdom, the Jenkins Commission, appointed by the new government, released their report October 29 that recommends the use of IRV for electing the House of Commons (with proportional representation achieved through the election of additional members based on the popular vote for parties nationally). ...

The single transferable vote is a more common voting procedure in the U.S. than most of us realize. Even the Academy Awards uses STV in determining their finalists. The American Political Science Association (APSA), the organization of political science professors, uses IRV to elect their national president, since political scientists understand that IRV is the fairest and simplest way to elect a single winner from a field of candidates."

(Center for Voting and Democracy, Washington, D.C.)

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TAGS

1850s1893advocacyAlternative Vote • American Political Science Association • APSA • Australia • Australian Federal Senate • Australian Lower House • Carl Andrae • contest • counting procedure • Denmark • election • fairnessHouse of CommonsInstant Runoff VotingIRV • Jenkins Commission • legislative elections • Massachusetts Institute of TechnologymisrepresentationParliamentpolicypolitical representationpolitical sciencepoliticspopular vote • preference ballot • proportional representation • QueenslandrankingRepublic of Irelandsimplicity • Single Transferable Vote • single winner • STV • systemThomas HaretransferUKvotingvoting system • W. R. Ware

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 JUNE 2009

Creative Industries: Hansard 19 November 1998

"Mr. [Richard] Spring: To ask the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport what action will be taken, following the creative industries mapping exercise, to(a) protect intellectual property rights, (b) stimulate creativity and innovation amongst young people, (c) improve access to venture capital in new ways and (d) promote creative industry exports. [59781]

Janet Anderson: The Government are committed to ensuring that British talent is able to reap the rewards of its creativity. We are negotiating in Europe on the draft782W Copyright Directive and with counterparts in other countries on frameworks for intellectual property management and ways of helping industry combat piracy."
(Hansard, vol 319 cc781–2W, 19 November 1998)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 SEPTEMBER 2007

Kiwi Wiki Informs Aotearoa Policing Policy

"Today's launch of a [Aotearoa] Policing Act wiki gives Kiwis an innovative way to suggest the wording for a new Act of Parliament. The wiki is the latest step in a comprehensive review of the 1958 Police Act. The officer in charge of the review, Superintendent Hamish McCardle, says the wiki provides an online space, similar to a whiteboard, where anyone can post their ideas on what a new Policing Act should say. The 'wiki' format is similar to that used for the popular on–line encyclop[a]edia, Wikipedia. 'Launching a wiki version of a statute is a novel move, but one we hope will yield a range of views from people interested in having a direct say on the shape of a new Policing Act,' Superintendent Mccardle says. If successful, one outcome is for the wiki Act to be given to the parliamentary select committee considering the official Policing Bill next year, along with other consultation information generated during the 18 month long review. 'This may well be one of the first pieces of legislation developed in New Zealand [Aotearoa] with the aid of such an online tool.'

The wiki can be accessed at http://wiki.policeact.govt.nz, or by using a link from the Police Act Review website (http://www.policeact.govt.nz). 'All the instructions are on the website and are easy to follow,' says Superintendent McCardle, 'and users can add their views within minutes.'

The Policing Act wiki joins other wikis launched to encourage New Zealanders to engage with public sector agencies. A good example is the Participation Wiki (http://wiki.participation.e.govt.nz), hosted by the [New Zealand] State Services Commission.

For further information/comment, contact Hamish McCardle +64 21 483 467"
(New Zealand Police, 5:08pm 25 September 2007)

Fig.1 "Shane aka Pajama Boy gives us all a peace lesson".

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TAGS

agency of access and engagementAotearoa New Zealandcivic engagementconsultationdemocracyencyclopaediaKiwi • McCardle • New Zealand Police • Parliamentparticipationpolice • Police Act • policysocial softwarewikiWikipedia
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