Not Signed-In
Which clippings match 'United States' keyword pg.1 of 2
21 JULY 2014

Jewish Voice for Peace: Israel/Palestine 101

Fig.1 short animated introduction to Israel–Palestine situation created by Jewish Voice for Peace.

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TAGS

1937194719482D animationautonomyawareness raisingbelligerencecivil libertiesconflictcontested state • David Ben-Gurion • demolition • expropriationfertile landGaza StripGeneva conventionhegemonyhistoryhistory of conflicthuman rights violationideological intoleranceillegal behaviourillegal settlement • indignities • international community • international consensus • IsraelIsraeli-Palestinian conflictJewish peopleJewish settlers • Jewish state • Jewish Voice for Peace • Middle Eastmilitarized resistance movements • military force • militia • nationhoodoccupied territoryoccupying powerownershipPalestine • Palestinian Arabs • Palestinian territories • partition • partition plan • peace • Peel partition plan • Peel plan • polemic • protestrefugeerespectRonald Reagansegregationsettlement • sovereign states • sovereigntyState of IsraelState of Palestineterritorial bordersterritorialisationterritorytoleranceUnited NationsUnited Stateswallwarwar over water • West Bank • Zionist

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
11 JULY 2014

The Adventure of English: the evolution of the English language

"The Adventure of English is a British television series (ITV) on the history of the English presented by Melvyn Bragg as well as a companion book, also written by Bragg. The series ran in 2003.

The series and the book are cast as an adventure story, or the biography of English as if it were a living being, covering the history of the language from its modest beginnings around 500 AD as a minor Germanic dialect to its rise as a truly established global language.

In the television series, Bragg explains the origins and spelling of many words based on the times in which they were introduced into the growing language that would eventually become modern English."

[Complete eight part series available on YouTube distributed by Maxwell's collection Pty Limited, Australia]

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TAGS

2002 • A Dictionary of the English Language • American English • American Spelling Book • Anglo-SaxonArabicaristocracyAustraliaAustralian Aborigineauthoritative historyBible • Blue Backed Speller • British televisionCaribbean • Catherine of Aragon • Celtic language • Celts • Church of England • cockney rhyming slang • colonisationcommon languagecommunication • Convicts land • dialectdictionaryDutch • educated people • English languageEsperantoFrenchFrench languageFrisian • Frisian language • Gaelic • Germanic rootsgrammarGreek • Gullah language • Hebrew • Henry V of England • Henry VIII of England • historical eventshistoryhistory of ideas • History of the English language • history of useimmigrationIndiaindustrial revolutioninvasionIsaac NewtonITVJamaicanJane Austen • John Cheke • John WycliffeJonathan Swift • Joseph McCoy • Katherine Duncan-Jones • King James I • languagelanguage developmentLatin wordlinguisticsmedieval churchMelvyn Braggmini-series • modern English • Netherlands • Noah Webster • North America • Old English • peasant • Philip Sidne • pidgin • pronunciation • Queen Elizabeth I • Robert Burns • Rural Rides • Samuel JohnsonSanskritScotland • Scottish language • scripture • spelling • Squanto • television series • The Adventure of English (2002) • theologian • Thomas Sheridan • United Statesuse of wordsvikingvocabulary • Websters Dictionary • West Africa • William Cobbett • William Jones • William Shakespeare • William the Conqueror • William Tyndale • William Wordsworth • words

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
21 JUNE 2013

1980s chiptune easter egg rediscovered in NZ washing machines

"Twenty years of patriotism on the part of Fisher & Paykel has been revealed thanks to a viral social media video that shows its washing machines can play the national anthem. A video posted on YouTube by a woman on Tuesday has received more than 165,000 hits. The woman explains how to make the washing machine play the New Zealand national anthem.

Fisher & Paykel marketing manager Sonya Aitken said the machines, which can also play the United States and Australian anthems, were programmed to play tunes by the company's engineers for demonstration purposes. ... While the singing machines were used to draw customers' attention in stores 20 years ago, it was no longer part of sales techniques, so the feature had essentially been forgotten and then rediscovered, she said."

(Laura Walters, 21/06/2013, Fairfax NZ News)

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TAGS

1980s8-bit • Advance Australia Fair • anthem • Aotearoa New ZealandAustralia • Beverly Hills Cop (1984) • chiptunecultural significance of objectsdigital archaeologydigital artefactsdomestic material objecteaster egg • Fisher and Paykel • God Defend New Zealand • hidden feature • Home of the Brave • how to do thingsmusic making technology • national anthem • obsolescenceordinary manufactured objectoutgrownpatriotism • power surge • rediscoveredremainderremains of the past • sales technique • social media • Sonya Aitken • tune • United Statesuseless machinesviral video • washing machine • what is left of the pastwhimsical interactions

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 JUNE 2012

Audience Research: Reception Analysis

"Despite the (implicit) nominal link to the work on what is also called 'Reception Theory', within the field of literary studies, carried out by Wolfgang Iser, Hans Jauss and other literary scholars (particular in Germany), the body of recent work on media audiences commonly referred to by this name, has on the whole, a different origin, although there are some theoretical links (cf., the work of Stanley Fish) than the work in literary theory. In practice, the term 'reception analysis', has come to be widely used as a way of characterising the wave of audience research which occurred within communications and cultural studies during the 1980s and 1990s. On the whole, this work has adopted a 'culturalist' perspective, has tended to use qualitative (and often ethnographic) methods of research and has tended to be concerned, one way or another, with exploring the active choices, uses and interpretations made of media materials, by their consumers.

As indicated in the previous discussion of 'The Media Audience', the single most important point of origin for this work, lies with the development of cultural studies in the writings of Stuart Hall at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham, England, in the early 1970s and, in particular, Hall's widely influential 'encoding/decoding' model of communications (see the discussion of 'The Media Audience' for an explanation of this model). Hall's model provided the inspiration, and much of the conceptual framework for a number of C.C.C.S' explorations of the process of media consumption, notably David Morley's widely cited study of the cultural patterning of differential interpretations of media messages among The 'Nationwide' Audience and Dorothy Hobson's work on women viewers of the soap opera Crossroads. These works were the forerunners of a blossoming of cultural studies work focusing on the media audience, throughout the 1980s and 1990s, including, among the most influential, from a feminist point of view, the work of Tania Modleski and Janice Radway on women consumers of soap opera and romance, and the work of Ien Ang, Tamar Liebes and Elihu Katz, Kim Schroder and Jostein Gripsrud on international cross cultural consumption of American drama series, such as Dallas and Dynasty.

Much of this work has been effectively summarised and popularised, especially, in the United States by John Fiske, who has drawn on the theoretical work of Michel de Certeau to develop a particular emphasis on the 'active audience', operating within what he terms the 'semiotic democracy' of postmodern pluralistic culture. Fiske's work has subsequently been the object of some critique, in which a number of authors, among them Budd, Condit, Evans, Gripsrud, and Seamann have argued that the emphasis on the openness (or 'polysemy') of the message and on the activity (and the implied 'empowerment') of the audience, within reception analysis, has been taken too far, to the extent that the original issue––of the extent of media power––has been lost sight of, as if the 'text' had been theoretically 'dissolved' into the audience's (supposedly) multiple 'readings' of (and 'resistances' to) it.

In the late 1980s, there were a number of calls to scholars to recognise a possible 'convergence' of previously disparate approaches under the general banner of 'reception analysis' (cf. in particular, Jensen and Rosengren), while Blumler et al. have claimed that the work of a scholar such as Radway is little more than a 're–invention' of the 'uses and gratifications' tradition––a claim hotly contested by Schroder. More recently, both Curran and Corner have offered substantial critiques of 'reception analysis'––the former accusing many reception analysts of ignorance of the earlier traditions of media audience research, and the latter accusing them of retreating away from important issues of macro–politics and power into inconsequential micro–ethnographies of domestic television consumption. For a reply to these criticisms, see Morley, 1992."

(David Morley, The Museum of Broadcast Communications)

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TAGS

1970s1980s1990sactive audience • active choices • activity • American drama series • Anna-Maria Seemann • audienceaudience research • Billy Budd • Celeste Condit • Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studiescommunication theorycommunications and cultural studiesconsumersconsumption • Crossroads (television series) • cultural patterning • cultural studies • culturalist perspective • Dallas (television series) • David Morley • differential interpretations • domestic television consumption • Dorothy Hobson • Dynasty (television series) • Elihu Katz • Elizabeth Evans • empowerment • encoding/decoding • ethnographic researchfeminist perspective • Hans Jauss • Ien Ang • international cross cultural consumption • interpretation • James Curran • Janice Radway • Jay Blumler • John Corner • John Fiske • Jostein Gripsrud • Karl Erik Rosengren • Kim Schroder • Klaus Jensen • literary scholarship • literary studiesliterary theory • macro-politics and power • MBC • media • media as text • media audience • media audience research • media audiencesmedia consumption • media messages • media power • media studiesmedia textmessageMichel de Certeau • micro-ethnographies • micro-ethnographies of domestic television consumption • model of communication • multiple readings • Museum of Broadcast Communicationsopennesspolysemy • postmodern pluralistic culture • powerqualitative research methods • reader-response criticism • reader-response theory • reception analysis • reception analysts • reception theory • romance • semiotic democracy • soap opera • Stanley Fish • Stuart Hall • Tamar Liebes • Tania Modleski • television • television consumption • textUnited StatesUniversity of Birmingham • uses and gratifications • Wolfgang Iser • women consumers • women viewers

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 MARCH 2006

New Modernity, Reflexive Modernity and Second Modernity

"Given the fact that people are likely to continue to seek the whole – that this is something inherent to the meaning–making, symbolizing process that makes us human beings – are there strategies for creating a way of living in the complex, plural realities we live in that can take into account the shifting factors in our existence, that can deal with the instabilities that are created without giving in to ways of seeking the whole that may be deeply flawed, either morally or socially?

What I would like to sketch out here are some attempts that are being made in that direction, that going beyond simply revelling in plurality (what Canadian sociologist Reginald Bibby designated a number of years ago as 'mosaic madness'[37]) or a kind of Balkanized multiculturalism that collapses at the first sign of stress. It goes by a number of names, and is being constructed especially by thinkers in Great Britain and in Germany. It was initially called 'reflexive modernity.' Somewhat later, Scott Lash called it a 'second modernity.' Most recently, Ulrich Beck has been calling it a 'new cosmopolitanism.'[38] Let us look at each of these names to explore how they are reading what needs to change in our perception of modernity.

'Reflexive modernity' refers to an attitude in our reading of modernity. It is intended to convey that our experience of modernity is no longer simply a phenomenological one, accepting the principles and promises of modernity at face value. Rather, we take a reflective, even critical posture toward it. For example, that progress and innovation are taken for granted as defining features of modernity is no longer assumed. We have been experiencing the limits of progress and innovation as values that can be accepted uncritically. This is most evident in debates about the environment. Is drilling for oil in wildlife reserves to be accepted because of the West's insatiable hunger for petroleum, even if it is a potential danger to the environment? The threat of global terrorism likewise compels us not take our security for granted any longer. Our sense of risk in general has been heightened, be it for reasons of ecology, the volatility of financial markets, the spread of communicable diseases such as SARS or avian flue [sic]. Reflexive modernity, then, means that we experience reality increasingly at one remove. We now question what we once took for granted.

'Second modernity' is an attempt to seek the whole, using the framework of reflexive modernity. It reflects the fact that we have moved beyond the first modernity, but are not mired in a fragmented postmodernity. One of the features of a second modernity is a sense that many of the boundaries that defined the first modernity have been shifted. These shifts are sometimes experienced as a deterritorialization, that is, boundaries which once defined and even protected us are no longer fulfilling these functions. This is most evident in the experience of the pluralization of our societies through migration. Not only are dominant culture people confronted with a multiplicity of ethnic identities, the situation has become such in some places that there is no ethnic majority any more. That, for instance, is the case in Los Angeles, and becoming increasingly so in other urban centres of immigration. Ecological threats in the atmosphere – be they the hole in the ozone layer or the cloud of smog hanging over South Asia from the cooking fires – know no national boundaries. Thus boundaries that define identities are found to be shifting as are those we thought once protected us. The United States thought it was largely safe from global terrorism because of the expanse of two oceans on its eastern and western frontiers. September 11 changed all of that.

Deterritorialization is experienced also in the fact that boundaries that once defined purity are being replaced by concepts of mixing and hybridity. As people migrate, mix, and marry racial identities become blurred. Jacques Audinet has called this 'the human face of globalization.'[39] To be of mixed race was through much of the nineteenth and twentieth century a sign of being impure, even of weaker stock. But things are changing rapidly in this regard. The golfer Tiger Woods has become an icon of this new hybridity: not only drawing his identity from African and Asian resources, but also by being the very opposite of a scion of a debilitated stock. He is the number one golfer in the world. Mestizaje, métissage, creolization – whatever it is called – represents now a new and positive way of being in the world.

The second modernity not only forces us to rethink boundaries; it calls forth new decisions. The debate about genetically modified crops, and the divide between North America and Europe on this matter, represents one set of such decisions to be made. The capacities of biotechnology to prolong life have created another. The line between medicinal supplements and doping in professional sports raises yet another. This second modernity raises, therefore, a whole set of questions that must be addressed now in a way that was not the case even in the immediate past.[40]

Finally, the most recent term introduced for this new modernity is cosmopolitanism. This is of course an older term, usually intended to convey the sense of being (as its etymology implies) a world citizen. It was typically used of elite populations, who had the means to travel frequently, and who as a result of this felt at home in many places in the world. In this newer usage that older meaning is not denied, but has been supplemented in two key ways. First of all, the new cosmopolitans are not so much an elite as they are the mass of migrants moving around the world today. Some are professionals and middle class, but the great majority of them are working class people. They are cosmopolitan in their capacity to negotiate multiple cultures, both in their current place of residence, their workplace, and their country of origin, and in their use of communications media to hold all of this together. Cultural critic Paul Gilroy sees them creating a new sense of convivência, or capacity to live together and interact with the great deal of difference that surrounds them. They do not experience cosmopolitan life as tourists or sometime visitors, but as those who must encounter and interact with difference every day of their lives. They do not have the luxury of experiencing the different as exotic or romantic; it is part of their ongoing struggle for survival.[41] The other dimension of this new cosmopolitanism is that its thinking and decisionmaking is increasingly characterized by a 'both–and' rather than an 'either–or' approach. Modernity was marked by its capacity to differentiate and make distinctions. That is, after all, a key aspect of critical thinking. Confronted as it is with increasing plurality and complexity, the new cosmopolitanism is more keenly aware of the need to capture that sense of complexity in its decision–making. A simple differentiation is less useful to explain phenomena in the world today. For example, the early stages of globalization were often characterized as a homogenization of the world: global flows from the media would gradually erase differences and we would all come to be more and more alike. Experience has shown, however, that such is not entirely the case. While some things have become more the same, the reaction against this homogenization has been new emphases on the local. English may be becoming the universal language of commerce and education in Europe, but this has also led to a revival of many local languages – such as Breton, Frisian, and Ladino – that once were considered doomed to extinction. Globalization has become, in the words of Roland Robertson, 'glocalization,' a mixture of the global and the local.[42] It is this 'both–and' attitude that is most characteristic of the new cosmopolitanism. Ways need to be found to incorporate the plurality we experience into our decisionmaking, our policies, and our ways of life, and taking an inclusive, rather than an exclusive, attitude is a major way of doing this."

(Robert J. Schreiter, pp.21–24)

37). Reginald Bibby, Mosaic Madness (Toronto: Stoddard, 1990).
38). Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens, and Scott Lash, Reflexive Modernization (Stanford: Standord University Press, 1994); Scott Lash, Another Modernity (London: Sage, 1999); Ulrich Beck, Der kosmopolitische Blick (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2004).
39). Jacques Audinet, The Human Face of Globalization: From Multicultural to Mestizaje (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005).
40). These questions of deterritorialization and new decisions in second modernity are explored in a variety of fields in Ulrich Beck and Christoph Lau (eds.), Entgrenzung und Entscheidung (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2005). This book and Beck's Der kosmopolitische Blick both appear in a series with Suhrkamp edited by Beck, entitled Edition Zweite Moderne.
41). Paul Gilroy, Postcolonial Melancholia (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005). Convivência is a Portuguese term referring to the capacity of people from different backgrounds to live together. Theo Sundermeier is credited with introducing the term into theology. See the entry 'Konvivenz,' RGG IV, 1654.
42). I explore Robertson's idea in The New Catholicity: Theology between the Global and the Local (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1997).

Schreiter, R. J. (2005). A New Modernity: Living and Believing in an Unstable World. The Anthony Jordan Lectures, Newman Theological College, Edmonton Alberta, March 18–19, 2005 pp.21–24. http://www.mission–preciousblood.org/Docsfiles/schreiter_new_modernity.pdf (Accessed 10 August 2005)

TAGS

avian flu • Balkansbiotechnologyboundaries • Breton • communicable diseases • communications mediacomplexity • convivencia • cosmopolitan • cosmopolitan life • cosmopolitanismcountry of origincreole • creolization • critical posturecritical thinkingcultural identitydecision makingdefining features of modernitydeterritorializationdifferencedifferentiationdistinctions • doping • ecological threatsecology • elite • elite populations • environment • environment reserves • ethnic majority • Europeexistenceexoticextinctionfinancial markets • first modernity • fragmented postmodernity • Frisian • genetically modified crops • global • global flows • global terrorism • globalisationglobalizationglocalglocalization • golf • homogenizationhybridisationhybridity • immediate past • immigrationimpurityinnovation • instabilities • Jacques Audinet • Ladino • limits of innovation • limits of progress • live together • local • local languages • Los Angelesluxury • medicinal supplements • mestizaje • metissage • middle class • migration • mixed race • mixturemodernity • mosaic madness • multiculturalism • multiple cultures • multiplicity of ethnic identities • national boundaries • new cosmopolitanism • new cosmopolitans • new hybriditynew modernitynineteenth centuryNorth America • oil reserves • ozone layer • Paul Gilroyperception of modernity • petroleum • phenomenologicalphenomenology • place of residence • plural realities • pluralismpluralistic societyplurality • policies • postmodernity • principles of modernity • professional sports • professionals • progress • prolong life • promises of modernity • purity • racial identities • reading of modernity • reflexive modernisationreflexive modernity • Reginald Bibby • rethink boundariesRobert Schreiter • Roland Robertson • romantic • SARS • scion • Scott Lashsecond modernity • sense of risk • September 11 2001shifting factorsSouth Asiasurvival • Tiger Woods • tourists • travel frequently • twentieth centuryUlrich BeckUnited States • universal language of commerce • urban centres • ways of life • weaker stock • wildlife reservesworking classworkplace • world citizen
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