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11 NOVEMBER 2016

Rap & Hip-Hop was born in 1973 at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue

"Hip-hop music is generally considered to have been pioneered in New York's South Bronx in 1973 by Jamaican-born Kool DJ Herc. At a Halloween dance party thrown by his younger sister, Herc used an innovative turntable technique to stretch a song's drum break by playing the break portion of two identical records consecutively. The popularity of the extended break lent its name to 'breakdancing'--a style specific to hip-hop culture, which was facilitated by extended drumbreaks played by DJs at New York dance parties. By the mid-1970s, New York's hip-hop scene was dominated by seminal turntablists DJ Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, and Herc. The rappers of Sugarhill Gang produced hip-hop's first commercially successful hit, 'Rapper's Delight,' in 1979'.

Rap itself--the rhymes spoken over hip-hop music--began as a commentary on the ability--or 'skillz'--of a particular DJ while that DJ was playing records at a hip-hop event. MCs, the forerunners of today's rap artists, introduced DJs and their songs and often recognized the presence of friends in the audience at hip-hop performances. Their role was carved out by popular African-American radio disc jockeys in New York during the latel96Os, who introduced songs and artists with spontaneous rhymes. The innovation of MCs caught the attention of hip-hop fans. Their rhymes lapped over from the transition period between the end of one song and the introduction of the next to the songs themselves. Their commentaries moved solely from a DJ's skillz to their own personal experiences and stories. The role of MCs in performances rose steadily, and they began to be recognized as artists in their own right [2].

The local popularity of the rhythmic music served by DJs at dance parties and clubs, combined with an increase in 'b-boys'--breakdancers--and graffiti artists and the growing importance of MCs, created a distinctive culture known as hip-hop. For the most part, hip-hop culture was defined and embraced by young, urban, working-class African-Americans. Hip-hop music originated from a combination of traditionally African-American forms of music--including jazz, soul, gospel, and reggae. It was created by working-class African-Americans, who, like Herc, took advantage of available tools--vinyl records and turntables--to invent a new form of music that both expressed and shaped the culture of black New York City youth in the 1970s."

(Becky Blanchard, 1999)

2). Information on MCs drawn from the University of Maryland's "Mcing: The Past" and "MCing: The Present" in "A Brief History of Hip-Hop Culture"

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1970s1973African AmericanAfrika Bambaataaappropriation • b-boys • b-girls • Becky Blanchard • black culture • block party • break dancing • breakbeat • breakdance • breakdancing • Cindy Campbell • civil rights movement • Clive Campbell • cultural expression • dance party • DJ • DJ Grandmaster Flash • DJing • extended break • gospel • graffiti art • graffiti artists • Grandmaster Flash • hip-hophip-hop backbeat • hip-hop culture • hip-hop music • hip-hop performance • hip-hop scene • jazz • Kool DJ Herc • l960s • MC • MCing • music history • musical form • New York City • radio disc jockey • rap • rap artist • rap music • rapperreggae • rhyme • rhythmic music • Sedgwick Avenue • skillz • soul • South Bronx • spoken word • Sugarhill Gang • turntable • turntable technique • turntablist • vinyl record • West Bronx • working classworking class cultureyouth culture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 JANUARY 2013

Rough Trade: destination store plugged-in to what its customers want

"'Ignoring technology is to ignore what has become a way of life for our customers,' said Rough Trade Retail director Stephen Godfroy.

The retailer, which has two shops, on Portobello Road and Brick Lane in London, has defied the gloom in a dwindling music retailing market. It generated a like–for–like sales hike of 30 per cent in the year to July 31. Godfroy said Rough Trade has benefited from tourism to the capital.

'Visiting Rough Trade is one of the things to do when you come to London and we're very proud of that,' he said. 'Tourism is an important factor in our success. We're a destination store.'"

(Jason Gregory, 5th January 2011, Retail Week, EMAP Publishing Limited)

Fig.2 Louisa "photobooth in rough trade east" [http://i–still–love–thebeatles.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/just–saw–keira–knightley–walking–down.html]

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Album Club membership • Brick Lanebricks and mortarCDconcertsconsumer lifestylesdestination storediscoverabilityDVD • dwindling • high street shopsHMV • ignoring technology • in-store experience • in-store gigs • incorporate digitalindie scene • like-for-like sales • London • loyalty card • MP3 downloads • music retailing market • online databasephotobooth • Portobello Road • recommended by the retailer • Retail Week (magazine) • retailerRough Trade • Rough Trade East • Rough Trade Notting Hill • Rough Trade Retail • shift to digitalshopspend timeStephen Godfroysuccessful brand spacethings to dotourism • tourism to the capital • UK • upcoming releases • vinyl recordway of life

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 DECEMBER 2012

Dara Ó Briain's Science Club: The Story of Music

"Special guest James May explores how music is inextricably linked to our emotions, materials scientist Mark Miodownik takes apart an electric guitar and neuroscientist Tali Sharot reports on the ground breaking research which treats Parkinson's Disease with rhythm. Plus, science journalist Alok Jha asks whether computers are ruining music."

(BBC Two, UK)

Fig.1 this animation is from Episode 6 of 6 of Dara Ó Briain's Science Club, Tuesday 30 Dec 2012 at 9pm on BBC Two, voiced by Dara Ó Briain, animated by 12Foot6, Published on YouTube on 19 Dec 2012 by BBC.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 OCTOBER 2012

Timeline illustration of 1000 names of Sony Music artists since 1887

"Sony Music has unveiled a graphic installation documenting the company's 125 year musical history. Designed by Alex Fowkes, winner of Creative Review's 'One to Watch' in 2011, the Sony Music Timeline runs throughout the central atrium of Sony's open plan Derry Street offices.

The Installation features nearly 1000 names of artists signed to Sony Music and its affiliated labels from the foundation of Columbia Records in 1887 to the present day, including musical icons Elvis Presley, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, Janis Joplin, The Clash, Micheal Jackson and many many more.

Interspersed among the artist names are certain key developments in technology, musical formats and corporate history – from the invention of early recording cylinders to vinyl, cassette, CD, radio, MTV, the Sony Walkman, the iPod and the introduction of digital streaming services.

The work is organised by decade into 54 columns measuring over 2 meters tall and covering almost 150 square meters of wall space. It uses CNC cut vinyl as the sole medium for the whole installation.

Emma Pike, VP Industry Relations, who commissioned the piece said, 'The brief was to bring the inspiration of our music into the heart of our building and make our office space live and breathe our incredible musical legacy. Alex's beautiful graphics and illustrations do exactly that.'

Sony's partnership with Fowkes is set to continue as the Sony Music Timeline will grow each year with the addition of new artist names signed by the major.'"

(Sony Music, 2012)

Sony Music Timeline Process Video, Design & Art Direction: Alex Fowkes Photography & Video: Rob Antill, Music Production: Joseph Bird.

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125 years • 18872012 • Alex Fowkes • analogue and digital formatsBob DylanBruce SpringsteencassetteCD • Columbia Records • consumer electronicscorporate historyCreative Review (magazine)design innovation • developments in technology • digital streamingdigital technologyearly recording technologyElvis Presley • Emma Pike • graphic illustrationhistoryhistory of information technologyhistory of recording technologyinformation designiPod • Janis Joplin • Jimi Hendrix • Lex Media • Michael JacksonMTV • music artist • music artsmusic formatmusic history • musical legacy • Paul Sexton • pioneering technologyposter illustrationproduct designradio • recording cylinder • Rob AntillSonySony MusicSony Walkmantechnology convergenceThe Clashtimelapsetimelinevinyl record

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
13 JUNE 2012

Tape Art

"Watch what happened when Foot Locker and Converse invited a collective of street artists to create tape art installations inspired by the new Converse winter collection created for Foot Locker."

(Uploaded by footlocker on 15 Nov 2010)

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2010actual environmentadvertisingartworkback and forth • Chuck Taylor • Converse Inc • Converse Padded Collar 2 • creative advertisingcreative workdesign collectivedrawing • drawing with tape • extended play • Foot Locker • giant turntable • graffitigraphic artillusionillusionistic spaceillustrationillustrative stylemural • new Converse winter collection • painting as illusionperspectiveperspective viewscratchingstreet artstreet artistsstreetweartape • tape art • tape art installations • turntable • turntablist technique • vinyl recordvisual perspectivevisual representation

CONTRIBUTOR

Kay Van Bellen
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