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Which clippings match 'P2P' keyword pg.1 of 2
24 NOVEMBER 2016

Download Finished (2006): a procedural video machine

"Download Finished was an online ressource which transformed and re-published films from P2P networks and online archives. Found footage became the rough material for the transformation machine, which translated the underlying data structure of the films onto the surface of the screen. The original images dissolved into pixels, thus making the hidden data structure visible. Through Download Finished, file sharers became authors by re-interpreting their most beloved films. ...

Download Finished questions the relationship between the original and its copy in a digital environment. It deals with questions arising from the cultural practice of file sharing (and the breakages and voids it makes evident within the copyright system)."

(!Mediengruppe Bitnik)

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!Mediengruppe Bitnik (arts collective) • 2006 • Adnan Hadzi • aesthetics • algorithmic reconfiguration • algorithmic remixing • algorithmic transformation • art projectartefactingauthorship • automatic composition • Carmen Weisskopf • chance artcorrupting digital datacut-up • Daniel Ryser • data glitches • data remixing • databendingdigital aestheticsdigital detritusdigital errorsdigital materialismdistortion • Domagoj Smoljo • Download Finished (2006) • found footage • generative works • glitch aestheticsglitch practitionersglitched out video • online ressource • P2P • procedural remixing • procedural transformation • procedural video machine • re-publishreinterpretation • reinterpreting • remixedrepurposingsynthesis machines • system-based synthesise • systems arttech-art • transformation machine • transformed by technology

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
22 MARCH 2013

The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin

"In November 1, 2008, a man named Satoshi Nakamoto posted a research paper to an obscure cryptography listserv describing his design for a new digital currency that he called bitcoin. None of the list's veterans had heard of him, and what little information could be gleaned was murky and contradictory. In an online profile, he said he lived in Japan. His email address was from a free German service. Google searches for his name turned up no relevant information; it was clearly a pseudonym. But while Nakamoto himself may have been a puzzle, his creation cracked a problem that had stumped cryptographers for decades. The idea of digital money – convenient and untraceable, liberated from the oversight of governments and banks – had been a hot topic since the birth of the Internet. Cypherpunks, the 1990s movement of libertarian cryptographers, dedicated themselves to the project. Yet every effort to create virtual cash had foundered. Ecash, an anonymous system launched in the early 1990s by cryptographer David Chaum, failed in part because it depended on the existing infrastructures of government and credit card companies. Other proposals followed – bit gold, RPOW, b–money – but none got off the ground.

One of the core challenges of designing a digital currency involves something called the double–spending problem. If a digital dollar is just information, free from the corporeal strictures of paper and metal, what's to prevent people from copying and pasting it as easily as a chunk of text, 'spending' it as many times as they want? The conventional answer involved using a central clearinghouse to keep a real–time ledger of all transactions – ensuring that, if someone spends his last digital dollar, he can't then spend it again. The ledger prevents fraud, but it also requires a trusted third party to administer it.

Bitcoin did away with the third party by publicly distributing the ledger, what Nakamoto called the 'block chain.' Users willing to devote CPU power to running a special piece of software would be called miners and would form a network to maintain the block chain collectively. In the process, they would also generate new currency. Transactions would be broadcast to the network, and computers running the software would compete to solve irreversible cryptographic puzzles that contain data from several transactions. The first miner to solve each puzzle would be awarded 50 new bitcoins, and the associated block of transactions would be added to the chain. The difficulty of each puzzle would increase as the number of miners increased, which would keep production to one block of transactions roughly every 10 minutes. In addition, the size of each block bounty would halve every 210,000 blocks – first from 50 bitcoins to 25, then from 25 to 12.5, and so on. Around the year 2140, the currency would reach its preordained limit of 21 million bitcoins."

(Benjamin Wallace, 23 November 2011, Wired Magazine)

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1990s2008anonymous system • b-money • bit gold • bitcoin • block chain • broadcast to the network • chain • clearinghouse • collective interests • collective participation • collective participation technology • corporeal strictures • credit card • cryptographer • cryptographic puzzle • cryptography • currency • cypherpunkDavid Chaumdecentralisation • digital currency • digital dollar • digital money • distribution models • double-spending • financial flowsfinancial transactionsfraudfree market economyglobal capital flowsinformation flowsinformation theoryinfrastructureJapan • ledger • libertarianism • Listservminermining • mining metaphor • P2Ppuzzle • pyramid scheme • RPOW • Satoshi Nakamoto • speculationspeculation and innovation • spending • trustvalue and benefit • virtual cash • Wired (magazine)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
01 SEPTEMBER 2011

Aotearoa New Zealand illegal online file-sharing laws pass

"(Apr. 18, 2011) On April 14, 2011, the New Zealand parliament passed the Copyright (Infringing File Sharing) Amendment Bill. (Press Release, Hon. Simon Power, New Regime for Section 92a Copyright Infringements (Apr. 14, 2011) [Press Release 1]; see also Copyright (Infringing File Sharing) Amendment Bill, New Zealand Legislation website (last visited Apr. 14, 2011).)

The bill establishes a new three–notice regime that seeks to deter illegal online file–sharing, replacing the previous approach that was set out by section 92A of the Copyright Act 1994. Section 92A, which was enacted in 2008 but never brought into force, would have required internet service providers (ISPs) to have, and reasonably implement, a policy for terminating the accounts of customers who repeatedly downloaded pirated material. (Press Release, Hon. Simon Power, Government to Amend Section 92A (Mar. 23, 2009); Press Release, Hon. Simon Power, Section 92A Bill Introduced to Parliament Today (Feb. 23, 2010); see also Press Release, Hon. Judith Tizard, Copyright (New Technologies) Amendment Comes into Force (Oct. 3, 2008).) ...

This regime will come into force from September 1, 2011, although it will not apply to cellular mobile networks until October 2013. (Press Release 1, supra.)"

(Kelly Buchanan, Global Legal Monitor, USA Law Library of Congress)

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199420082011Aotearoa New Zealandcellular mobile networkscopyrightCopyright Act 1994copyright infringement • Copyright Tribunal • creative industriesdata regulationsdownloadingdownloading lawethicsfile sharing • illegal online file-sharing • infringing file sharingintellectual property • international legal news • Internet file sharing law • Internet Piracy Bill • internet service providerISP • Judith Tizard • legallegislationLibrary of Congresslicensemonitoringmusic downloadingNational (political party)new technologiesoffenceP2Ppeer-to-peerpiracypirated materialregulationremixsection 92ashare • Simon Power

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
11 AUGUST 2009

KeyHoleTV: P2P broadcast technology

"With super–low load P2P communication, "KeyHoleTV" enables you to watch TV programmes of any country via Internet. The software was developed under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications' programme for "Development of Next Generation P2P Content Distribution System" and it is compliant to Windows XP/Vista, Windows Mobile, Mac OS and Linux."
(gigazine.net, 08 April 2009)

[The technology includes clients for both viewing and broadcasting video content over the Internet.]

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authorshipbroadcastbroadcastingconvergencedevicedigital mediadistributionJapan • KeyHoleTV • KeyHoleVideo • Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications • old mediaP2Pparticipationpeer-to-peerscriptibletechnologytelevisionuser-generated

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
29 DECEMBER 2008

Deptford.tv: a practice research project exploring the possibilities of online media and collaborative filmmaking

"Adnan Hadzi started off by introducing his Deptford TV project (deptford.tv) – a practice research project exploring the possibilities of online media and collaborative filmmaking. The research is a collaboration between Goldsmith's College, Deckspace Media Lab, Bitnick Media Collective, Boundless Project and Liquid Culture Initiative. Hadzi's presentation introduced two key aims of his research: one is to archive and create a database of footage documenting the regeneration process of Deptford, South East London, working closely with the local community; the other is to then make this footage available to artists, filmmakers and people living in Deptford in order that they can re–edit and share the material online. Hadzi's research explores how new media can revolutionise the relationship between filmmaker, subject and audience, enabling the subjects of the footage to also be authors of edited 'timelines' which in turn can be commented upon or changed by the viewers. This was illustrated by a clip from the project Deptford Now and Then by Gordon Cooper, which intercuts between archive footage of the Deptford power station, images of the community film archive and the archive projectionist's reflexive pieces to camera. In this way, Hadzi's research challenges our concept of traditional 'broadcasting' and explores the opportunities of peer–to–peer and user–generated content for community film, research questions which clearly could not be explored through traditional publication alone."
(Adnan Hadzi)

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802.11audiovisualboundless.coop wireless network • broadcast localism • broadcasting • collaborative filmmaking • collaborative media • collaborative media production • community regenerationDeptford • Deptford TV • digital mediaonline mediaP2Pparticipationpeer-to-peerpractice-based research • reflexive • reflexivityresearchsocial changetheory buildingtransformationUKuser-generated

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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