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25 FEBRUARY 2016

Universal resilience patterns in complex networks

"Resilience, a system's ability to adjust its activity to retain its basic functionality when errors, failures and environmental changes occur, is a defining property of many complex systems. Despite widespread consequences for human health, the economy and the environment, events leading to loss of resilience—from cascading failures in technological systems to mass extinctions in ecological networks—are rarely predictable and are often irreversible. These limitations are rooted in a theoretical gap: the current analytical framework of resilience is designed to treat low-dimensional models with a few interacting components, and is unsuitable for multi-dimensional systems consisting of a large number of components that interact through a complex network. Here we bridge this theoretical gap by developing a set of analytical tools with which to identify the natural control and state parameters of a multi-dimensional complex system, helping us derive effective one-dimensional dynamics that accurately predict the system's resilience. The proposed analytical framework allows us systematically to separate the roles of the system's dynamics and topology, collapsing the behaviour of different networks onto a single universal resilience function. The analytical results unveil the network characteristics that can enhance or diminish resilience, offering ways to prevent the collapse of ecological, biological or economic systems, and guiding the design of technological systems resilient to both internal failures and environmental changes."

(Jianxi Gao, Baruch Barzel & Albert-László Barabási, 17 February 2016, Nature)

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TAGS

2016Albert-Laszlo Barabasi • Baruch Barzel • biological systems • cascading failure • Cognitive Visualization Lab • complex networkscomplex systems • critical phenomena • data visualisationdroughtecological balance • ecological networks • ecological sustainability • ecological systems • ecosystemenvironmental changeenvironmental statisticsextinctionglobal issuesIBM • IBM Watson • interrelationships • irreversible change • Jianxi Gao • loss of resilience • Mauro Martino • multidimensional systems • network dynamics • network earth • network ecologynetwork model • network relationships • networked interaction • nonlinear phenomena • Northeastern University • one-dimensional dynamics • phase transitions • resiliencespeciationsustainability • system collapse • technological systems • universal resilience function • universal resilience patterns • visual explanations • visual representation graphicallyvisual representations of scientific conceptsvisualising data • wildfire

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 JUNE 2015

Emoticons as computer-mediated non-verbal communication

"The term 'emoticons'—short for 'emotion icons'—refers to graphic signs, such as the smiley face, that often accompany computer-mediated textual communication. They are most often characterized as iconic indicators of emotion, conveyed through a communication channel that is parallel to the linguistic one. In this article, it is argued that this conception of emoticons fails to account for some of their important uses. We present a brief outline of speech act theory and use it to provide a complementary account of emoticons, according to which they also function as indicators of illocutionary force. More broadly, we identify and illustrate three ways in which emoticons function: 1) as emotion indicators, mapped directly onto facial expression; 2) as indicators of non-emotional meanings, mapped conventionally onto facial expressions, and 3) as illocutionary force indicators that do not map conventionally onto a facial expression. In concluding, we draw parallels between emoticons and utterance-final punctuation marks, and show how our discussion of emoticons bears upon the broader question of the bounds between linguistic and non-linguistic communication."

(Eli Dresner and Susan C. Herring, 2010)

Dresner, E., & Herring, S. C. (2010). "Functions of the non-verbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force". Communication Theory, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 249-268.

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TAGS

2010computer-mediated communication (CMC) • computer-mediated textual communication • discourse analysis • Eli Dresner • emoticons • emotion icon • emotion indicators • facial expressionsgraphic communication • graphic signs • hieroglyphs • iconic indicators of emotion • illocutionary act • illocutionary force • illocutionary force indicator • illustration to visually communicate informationimages replace text • linguistic communication • linguistics • non-emotional meanings • non-linguistic communication • non-verbal communicationpictogrampictorial languagepicture language • smiley face • social informatics • speech act theory • Susan Herring • textual computer-mediated communication (CMC) • utterance-final punctuation marks • visual languagevisual literacyvisual representation graphically

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
24 DECEMBER 2014

CNN Ecosphere Project: engagement through real-time visualisations

"In November 2011, the UN invited representatives from 194 states to discuss climate change at the COP17 Conference (17th Conference of Parties) in Durban, South Africa. CNN launched the ECOSPHERE Project and brought the world to the COP17 Climate Change Conference – with a hashtag.

The CNN ECOSPHERE is a digital ecosystem growing from thousands of tweets about climate change. A real–time visualisation of the global discussion on the internet.

Every #COP17 tweet stimulated growth in one of the numerous plants representing topics like Sustainability or Carbon. The size, colour and growth rate of these plants gave users a fascinating view of how the international conversation was evolving.

CNN invited people to plant a thought with hashtag #COP17 and brought the project to the COP17 Conference. Here a live digital installation connected delegates with contributions from all over the world–getting more people involved in a climate change conference than ever before."

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2011audience engagementaudience responsecarbon emissionsclimate change • climate change discussion • CNN • CNN Ecosphere Project • cone tree • conference delegates • COP17 Conference • Durban • dynamic digital installationengaging and empowering our audiencefeedback loop • global climate change • global conversation • global issueshashtag • Heimat Berlin • holographic image • infographicinformation visualisationmicrosite • Minivegas • real-time visualisationshared contextsocial mediaSouth Africa • Stinkdigital • sustainabilitytree visualisationtrend analysistweetsvisual representation graphicallyWebGL

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
04 AUGUST 2014

Eduardo Paolozzi: Turkische Musik, 1974

"Eduardo Paolozzi's work often, as in the Türkische Musik series, may be printed in different color schemes or on different papers. All these elements combine to suggest that the image is often discovered in the act of creating it; the artist's role is integrally balanced between active calculation and chance. No longer confined to a single plan, the artist–printmaker and his work signify an exciting new order of print– making, one in which technological expertise becomes a useful vehicle for personal expression."

(Georgette Lee, 1986)

Precision of Image: Technology in Printed Art : 20 April – 7 September, 1986, The Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery at Syracuse University in Syracuse.

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 MARCH 2014

Motion + Design Centre: an animated history of motion graphics

"Motion Plus Design est un projet qui a pour but de créer un centre d'exposition dédié au Motion Design à Paris. Ce projet vise dans un premier temps à définir le motion design au grand public, le but final étant de réussir à créer un centre physique dédié au motion design à Paris."

(Mattias Peresini, 18 Juin 2012, Mattrunks)

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CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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