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Physical Space as Brand Innovation

"Prior to Starbucks, coffee shops in the U.S. were designed to be purely transactional. The most frequently analyzed metric was sales per square feet, and the concept of a store dedicating valuable space just for customers to hang out after they had bought something was unheard of. We all know how it panned out. Starbucks is globally known and a second home for many.

Barnes & Noble adopted the trend. They added lounge chairs and then Starbucks itself to their locations. The bookstore café became a place to visit consistently and to explore, hang out, and to be alone together.

Last week, I spent two hours online at a Peet's Coffee & Tea in Santa Clara, California. Something important has changed: People now work independently online. Before the days of free wifi, people used to mingle with friends over coffee. At Peet's, I spent most of my time in my "fourth places"––my online communities, including Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, LinkedIn, and OpenSky. Looking around, everyone was doing the same. We came for the wifi and bought the coffee."

(John Caplan, 16 September 2013,

Fig.1 Nick Kenrick []



alone togetherBarnes and Noble • bookstore cafe • brand innovation • cafe officecafe society • coffee shops • effective brand spaceenvironment that adds value • fourth place • free wifi • hanging out • • lounge chairs • mingleonline communities • OpenSky • Peets Coffee and Tea • physical consumer spacephysical environmentphysical retail spacephysical space • place to visit • retail space • sales per square feet • Santa Clara • shop conceptsshopping behavioursocial appssocial fragmentationspatial environmentsStarbuckstransactionWiFi • work independently online • working practices


Simon Perkins

The9Billion: Sustainability, Clean Technology News and Views

"Here at THE9BILLION you'll find the latest news, information and opinion related to living a happier and more sustainable life, one day at a time. Main categories cover Earth, Technology, Living, Business, Politics, Culture, Entertainment, and the Social aspects of life.

It's estimated that the world's population will reach around 9 billion people by 2050, and then begin to fall. We are currently approaching 7 billion. Many of us living today will still be around in 2050. The question is: given our many social and environmental issues, how are 9 billion people going to learn to live sustainably by 2050?"

(John Johnston)

Fig.1 "Greenaid Seedbomb Vending Machine", SpontaneousInterventions [–seedbomb–vending–machine].



20112050 • 9 billion people • clean technology • connectivityemerging technologiesenvironmentenvironmental issuesenvironmental responsibilitygreen • happier life • information and opinion • John Johnston • learn to live sustainably • living sustainably • mobile technologiesnews • news and views • online communicationonline communitiesopinionsocial issuessocial media • social media advocate • social media strategist • social responsibilitysocial softwaresustainability • sustainable life • The9Billion • world population


Simon Perkins
28 OCTOBER 2008

Remix culture: an empirical analysis of creative reuse and the licensing of digital media in online communities

"We explore the nature and impact of creative reuse in the production of digital media by analysing the output of an innovative online music sharing community, ccMixter. The dataset is of great significance because this is one of only a handful of online communities which do not only allow for the sharing of user–generated content, but also track the evolution of content after it has been published online and encourage reuse of the content for the production of new works. All content on ccMixter is legally uploaded, copyrighted, and licensed under Creative Commons. Much has been written about the birth of a new 'remix culture' on the Internet and how collaborative Web 2.0 technology has led to an explosion of user–generated content. But very little is known about the process of developing digital media in an open and collaborative fashion, the incentives of participating authors, and the outcomes of their actions. Based on our earlier studies of Creative Commons licensing and the analysis of this unique online community we hope to shed more light on the structure and dynamics of such activities by providing some of the first visualisations ever of large–scale remixing activity and presenting our preliminary findings."

(Clint Mark Lumantao Gono, Ankit Guglani, Mike Linksvayer, Victor Stone, Warren Chik, and Giri Kumar Tayi, Singapore)



authorshipccMixterCreative Commonsdigital mediamash-up • music sharing • online communitiesownership • Participatory Media Lab • re-purposeremixremix culturereuseuser-generatedWeb 2.0 • working paper


Simon Perkins
29 JANUARY 2005

Online Spaces: Communities, Chat Rooms, Inns, Settlements, Commons

The online spaces where virtual community members interact are referred to by a wide variety of labels including chat rooms (Read 1991), cyber–inns (Coate 1992), virtual settlements (Jones 1997), commons (Kollock and Smith 1994), and conferences (Hiltz and Turoff 1981). Some systems are completely open to the public, such as LambdaMoo (Schiano and White 1998), others are restricted to a membership (Schlager and Schank 1997), or a specific task or purpose (Erickson 1999). The diversity of online community space designs and labels highlights how system features provide a context for community interactions.

Coate, J., 1992. Innkeeping in Cyberspace, In: Directions and Implications of Advanced Computing (DIAC–92), Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Palo Alto, CA.

Erickson, T., et al. Socially Translucent Systems: Social Proxies, Persistent Conversation, and the Design of Babble. in Human Factors in Computing: The Proceedings of CHI 99. 1999. Pittsburgh, PA: ACM Press

Hiltz, S.R. and M. Turoff, 1981. The evolution of user behaviour in a computerized conferencing system, Communications of the ACM, 24 (11 November): 739–751

Jones Q. 1997. Virtual–communities, virtual–settlements & cyber–archaeology: A theoretical outline. J of Comp Mediated Communication 3(3)

Kollock, P. and M. Smith, 1994. Managing the virtual commons: Cooperation and conflict in computer communities. In: Computer–Mediated Communication, (Ed. S. Herring), John Benjamins, Amsterdam

Reid, E. M., 1991. Electropolis: Communications and community on Internet Relay Chat, Honours, History, University of Melbourne.

Schiano, D.J. and S. White. The first noble truth of CyberSpace: People are People (even when they MOO). in CHI 98. 1998. Los Angeles CA: ACM

Schlager, M. and P. Schank. TAPPED IN: A New On–line Teacher Community Concept for the Next Generation of Internet Technology. in CSCL '97, The Second International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. 1997. Toronto: ACM


chat roomcommons • cyber-inn • LambdaMoo • MOOnetworks of social interactiononline communities • online spaces • virtual communities • virtual settlement
04 FEBRUARY 2004

Online Community Developers Shape Digital Landscapes

"Like twentieth–century architects and town planners, online community developers shape digital landscapes, but successful online communities also need a purpose, people and policies. In millions of online communities people meet to debate baseball scores, compare child–birth experiences, get information about stocks, and ask for consumer advice. People create communities by their presence or absence, their behavior and personalities, and so do moderators and others with special roles. Developers can't control what people do but they can influence them by defining purposes and policies. Designing software that is consistent, predictable, easy to learn and supports how people want to interact has an impact too. Supporting social interaction (i.e., sociability) and human–computer interaction (i.e., usability) can produce thriving online communities instead of electronic ghost towns. Many developers design software, thinking they are designing communities. Meanwhile, keen–eyed, reflective sociologists describe the emergence of communities. But communities are neither designed nor do they just emerge. Like physical communities they evolve and change over time."

(Jenny Preece)

Seminar on People, Computers, and Design, Stanford University October 13, 2000



2000 • communities emerge • communities in cyberspacecommunitycommunity buildingcommunity design • designing communities • developers • digital landscapes • electronic ghost town • electronic ghost towns • emerge • evolve and change over time • evolving cultureevolving experienceHCIHMIJenny Preecelandscapeonlineonline communities • online community developers • physical communities • policy • reflective sociologists • reflective sociology • reflexivitysociabilitysocial interactionsocial theory • the emergence of communities • twentieth centuryusability

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