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30 DECEMBER 2008

New Zealand did not have its own constitutional government until 1853

"New Zealand did not have its own constitutional government until 1853, when the Imperial Parliament's New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was implemented. Until that time, New Zealand was a Crown colony. The power vested in the Crown by the various Acts of Parliament relating to New Zealand was in turn vested in the governor. The colonial secretary issued him with instructions as to how this authority was to be exercised. In a colony with only one governor, none of the executive powers were delegated. He could take advice from subordinates but nothing could be done without his authority. In theory once lieutenant–governors were appointed, as in New Zealand after 1846, they would conduct the administration of their provinces, and certain executive powers would be delegated to them under the supervision of the governor–in–chief.

New Zealand was initially under the adminstration of the New South Wales governor, Sir George Gipps. On 3 May 1841 the country became a Crown colony in its own right and Hobson was elevated from lieutenant–governor to governor. Hobson died on 10 September 1842 after a series of illnesses which left many of his duties to his few officials. His replacement was Captain Robert FitzRoy, governor from 26 December 1843 until 17 November 1845. It was during his term of office that the Otakou purchase was negotiated. The Hobson and FitzRoy administrations were periods of considerable economic and political difficulty. Government was severely under–resourced and under–funded. Tensions between Maori and settlers, and between both races and the Crown remained unresolved. With the appointment of Captain George Grey, backed by Imperial troops and much stronger financial support, the Crown was able to take the initiative."

(The Ngāi Tahu Report 1991, Section 5.2.1, Waitangi Tribunal, Department of Justice, Wellington)

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TAGS

1853 • Aotearoa New ZealandAustraliaCommonwealthconstitution • Crown colony • George Gipps • George Grey • governor • IndigenousMaoriNew South Wales • Ngāi Tahu • NSWOtago • Otakou • race • Robert FitzRoy • settlementSouth IslandTe Tiriti o WaitangitreatyTreaty of WaitangitribevaluesWilliam Hobson

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
15 DECEMBER 2005

(un)Smart-Mobs: text-messages used to incite racial violence at NSW's Cronulla Beach

"Come to Cronulla this weekend to take revenge. This Sunday every Aussie in the Shire get down to North Cronulla to support the Leb and wog bashing day ..."
(anonymous text message, circulated between 5–10 December 2005)

Fig.1 Sydney Morning Herald's Photographer Andrew Meares captures the fury of the Cronulla riots.

[The use of mobile telephone text messages to incite racial hared at North Cronulla beach in Sydney, Australia is a good example of what Howard Rheingold calls 'Smart–Mobs'. Although it is clear in this case that the content of the messages has very little to do with being smart, the fact that groups of individuals are able to self–organise in a decentralised way is. Such technology allows individuals to form groups in an ad–hoc manner (in this case, groups of foolish red–necks), which is significant given the centralised nature of most other communication avenues.]

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TAGS

2005ad-hocAlan Jones • Andrew Meares • Australiabelligerencebigot • Cronulla • deindividuationfearflash mobsHoward RheingoldmobilenationalismNSWpatriotismracismsmart mobsSydneytext messageviolenceviral
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