"The economists Richard Lester and Michael Piore have studied the firms that sought to create the switching technology, finding that cooperation and collaboration within certain companies allowed them to make headway on the switching technology problem, whereas internal competition at other corporations diminished engineers’ efforts to improve the quality of the switches. Motorola, a success story, developed what it called a 'technology shelf,' created by a small group of engineers, on which were placed possible technical solutions that other teams might use in the future; rather than trying to solve the problem outright, it developed tools whose immediate value was not clear. Nokia grappled with the problem in another collaborative way, creating an open-ended conversation among its engineers in which salespeople and designers were often included. The boundaries among business units in Nokia were deliberately ambiguous, because more than technical information was needed to get a feeling for the problem; lateral thinking was required. Lester and Piore describe the process of communication this entailed as 'fluid, context-dependent, undetermined.'
By contrast, companies like Ericsson proceeded with more seeming clarity and discipline, dividing the problem into its parts. The birth of the new switch was intended to occur through 'the exchange of information' among offices 'rather than the cultivation of an interpretative community.' Rigidly organized, Ericsson fell away. It did eventually solve the switching technology problem, but with greater difficulty; different offices protected their turf. In any organization, individuals or teams that compete and are rewarded for doing better than others will hoard information. In technology firms, hoarding information particularly disables good work.
The corporations that succeeded through cooperation shared with the Linux community that experimental mark of technological craftsmanship, the intimate, fluid join between problem solving and problem finding. Within the framework of competition, by contrast, clear standards of achievement and closure are needed to measure performance and to dole out rewards.
 Richard K. Lester and Michael J. Piore, Innovation, the Missing Dimension (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), 98.
 Ibid., 104."
(Richard Sennett, 2008, pp.32-33)
1). Sennett, R. (2008). "The Craftsman". New Haven & London, Yale University Press.
"A few months back I submitted the smallest speck of an idea for a talk I was hoping to present at Over The Air in London. Having presented at Over The Air before I assumed my experiences this time around would more or less be the same - a chance to bounce a few of my recent thoughts off two-dozen or so UK developers.
To suggest that my assumption was wrong would in-fact be a massive understatement...
Three weeks later, the dust is still settling on the 90,000 140,000 presentation views, hundreds of tweets, and multitude of conversations, and I finally have time to provide the presentation with a much-needed introduction."
Fig.1 "Rethinking the Mobile Web" by Yiibu
"The last speaker is Stuart Allan, speaking on citizen journalists' reporting of the London bombings. He begins with a review of some of the citizens' reports of the bombings, and the political rhetoric responding to it. How were the components of a local news story of instant global importance drawn together? The social phenomemon of citizen reporting especially as aided by mobile devices demonstrated its potential to challenge and change the journalistic reporting process. Stuart notes the late James Carey's view that the core purpose of journalism is the report, and the discussion of and challenge to what is taken to be real. The industrial processes of journalism may interfere with this process, however.
What constitutes journalists and journalism, and how reporting works, then? Interestingly, in the immediate journalistic response sites such as BBC News responded to the tension between reporting as soon as possible and making sure that no misinterpretations became established as apparent truths by posting reporters' logs as well as citizen eyewitness accounts and photos; in addition, other London-related sites and Londoners' blogs began posting their own reports and commentaries as well. The significance of participatory journalism is at stake here, and the event significantly challenged the industrial formula of news as well as definitions and ideologies of what constituted citizens, reporters, reports, and the news."
(Axel Bruns 23/06/2006)
[Axel Bruns' comments about presentations made at the 2006 International Communication Association (ICA) Conference (ICA2006) in Dresden, Germany.]
Fig.1 Eliot Ward (2005). camera phone photograph of Adam Stacey, on a tube train between King's Cross and Russell Square, London, July 7, 2005, during the 7 July 2005 London bombings.