"Uncertainty may be an important component of the motivation provided by learning games, especially when associated with gaming rather than learning. Three studies are reported that explore the influence of gaming uncertainty on engagement with computer– based learning games. In the first study, children (10–11 years) played a simple maths quiz. Participants chose their preferred reward for a correct answer prior to seeing each question. They could either receive a single point or toss an animated coin to receive 2 points for heads or none for tails. A preference for the uncertain option was revealed and this increased during the quiz. The second study explored the discourse around learning when pairs of participants (13–14 years) competed against the computer in a science quiz. Progress depended on the acquisition of facts but also on the outcomes of throwing dice. Discourse was characterised by a close intermingling of learning and gaming talk without salient problematic constructions regarding fairness when losing points due to gaming uncertainty. A final experiment explored whether, in this type of game, the uncertainty provided by the gaming component could influence players' affective response to the learning component. Electrodermal activity (EDA) of 16 adults was measured while they played the quiz with and without the element of chance provided by the dice. Results showed EDA when answering questions was increased by inclusion of gaming uncertainty. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of combining gaming uncertainty with learning and directions for further research in this area are outlined."
(Howard–Jones, P. A. and S. Demetriou, 2009)
1). Howard–Jones, P. A. and S. Demetriou (2009). "Uncertainty and Engagement with Learning Games." Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences 37(6): 519–536.
2). Paul Howard–Jones, 2014, radio programme, BBC Radio 4 – The Educators, episode 5 of 8, first broadcast: 10 September 2014.
Tony D. Sampson (2012). "Virality. Contagion Theory in the Age of Networks. University of Minnesota Press.
Kinetica Art Fair 2013, February 28th – March 3rd 2013, Ambika P3, 35 Marylebone Road, NW1 5LS, London, UK
"The Kinetica feature exhibition and events programme is themed on 'Illusion and Reality' and the thin veil that divides what is real and perceived. The exhibition will focus on perceptions of reality, with works by 19 international artists exploring the many dimensions of illusion. The exhibition aims to challenge ideas on what is real, perceived or imagined, and focuses on transformation, metamorphism, visual paradox, vibration, nature, the subliminal and the subconscious.
The exhibition includes a huge interactive light sculpture from Dutch artist Titia Ex, an exoskeleton hybrid of man–animal–machine by Christiann Zwanniken and a giant three dimensional zoetrope by Greg Barsamian.
The boundaries between reality and illusion will be explored in a series of live performances using the Musion holographic projection system, and features an international line–up including the award–winning audiovisual collective Origamibiro ; a fusion of 3d imaging and quantum mechanics in danceroom Spectroscopy ; a hypnotic audiovisual experience from Simulacrum ; and multi–sensory Polish collective INIRE. The Musion Academy will present a further series of captivating performances including Analema Group, AV3, IEOIE and Paul Prudence.
Key figures and eminent pioneers in the fields of new media art and neurosciences have been invited to participate in a daily programme of Talks, which also features presentations by experimental artists exhibiting at the Fair."
(Kinetica Museum, UK)
"This article describes a new method for assessing the effect of a given film on viewers' brain activity. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during free viewing of films, and inter–subject correlation analysis (ISC) was used to assess similarities in the spatiotemporal responses across viewers' brains during movie watching. Our results demonstrate that some films can exert considerable control over brain activity and eye movements. However, this was not the case for all types of motion picture sequences, and the level of control over viewers' brain activity differed as a function of movie content, editing, and directing style. We propose that ISC may be useful to film studies by providing a quantitative neuroscientific assessment of the impact of different styles of filmmaking on viewers' brains, and a valuable method for the film industry to better assess its products. Finally, we suggest that this method brings together two separate and largely unrelated disciplines, cognitive neuroscience and film studies, and may open the way for a new interdisciplinary field of 'neurocinematic' studies."
(Uri Hasson, Ohad Landesman et al.)
Hasson, U., Landesman, O., Knappmeyer, B., Vallines, I., Rubin, N. and Heeger, D. (2008), Neurocinematics: The neuroscience of films. Projections: The Journal for Movies and Mind 2, 1–26.
"Fiction – with its redolent details, imaginative metaphors and attentive descriptions of people and their actions – offers an especially rich replica. Indeed, in one respect novels go beyond simulating reality to give readers an experience unavailable off the page: the opportunity to enter fully into other people's thoughts and feelings.
The novel, of course, is an unequaled medium for the exploration of human social and emotional life. And there is evidence that just as the brain responds to depictions of smells and textures and movements as if they were the real thing, so it treats the interactions among fictional characters as something like real–life social encounters."
(Annie Murphy Paul, 17 March 2012, NYTimes.com)