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Which clippings match 'Nationalism' keyword pg.2 of 2
27 OCTOBER 2005

Diagnosing Iranian History in Terms of European Past

"Europe has been constituted as the horizon of expectation for the Iranian passage to modernity. Thus European history, as the future past of the desired present, has functioned as a normative scenario for the prognosis or forecasting of future Iran. This anticipatory modernity introduced a form of historical thinking that diagnosed Iranian history in terms of the European past. By universalising that past, historical deviations from the European norm have been mis–recognised as abnormalities. Thence, the development of feudalism, capitalism, the bourgeoisie, the proletariat, democracy, freedom, scientific rationality, and industry in the 'well–ordered' Europe have informed the diagnoses of their lack, absence, retardation, and underdevelopment in Iran.[33] In other words, alternative non–European historical processes have been characterised as the absence of change and as historical history."

(Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi pp.263 - 291)

TAGS

acculturation • affinity of languages • bordered history • coevalness • decolonising • detemporalising • European • forgotten texts • heterotopia • historical imagination • homeless texts • Iranmodernity • Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi • nationalismnon-contemporaneityOccidentalismorientalism • Persianate modernity • reactivation • schizochronic • self-refashioning • universalising
23 SEPTEMBER 2005

Retrospective Identities: unambiguous, stable, intellectually impervious and collective

Retrospective "identities use as resources narratives of the past which provide exemplars, criteria, belonging and . ... This provides for an unambiguous, stable, intellectually impervious, collective identity. This consumes the self in all its manifestations and gives it a site outside of current and future instabilities, beyond current ambiguities of judgement, relation and conduct. In some contexts it produces a strong insulation between the sacred and profane, such that it is possible to enter the profane world without either being appropriated or colonised by it. Islamic fundamentalism enables the appropriation of western technologies without cultural penetration. Nearer home orthodox Jews in the 1920s, and even earlier, occupied small shops and business slots in the economy and retained their identity through strict orthodox practice. In the 1960s and onwards many British [Central] Asian Moslems occupied a similar economic and cultural context. The problem here for such retrospective identities is their reproduction in the next generation, and here we might expect a shift to prospective or even therapeutic positions. Age may well influence the expression of the retrospective identity through differential selection of resources. It may well be that the young are attracted to the current revival of charismatic Christianity with its emphasis upon the subjective, the emotional, upon intense interactive participation and upon oppositions to institutional orthodoxes. On a more anecdotal level I have been impressed with the revival of student fraternity rituals in Portugal, Norway and Germany. Finally we can consider nationalism and populism as subsets of retrospective fundamentalism, drawing on mythological resources of origin, belonging, progression and destiny (rise of the extreme right). Any weakening of the collective resource on which the fundamentalist identity draws and which minutely regulates conduct, belief and participation, as is likely in inter–generation reproduction, may entail a shift to re–centring identities on the part of the young."

(Basil Bernstein 2000, p.74)

Bernstein, Basil. (2000). 'Pedagogy Symbolic Control and Identity, Theory Research Critique'. Oxford, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

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TAGS

Basil Bernsteinbelief systemsbelongingChristianitycoherenceconservative attitudesfaithfraternityfundamentalismGermany • Hillsong Church • identityinsular communitiesIslamIslamicJudaism • Moslem • MuslimmythologynationalismNorwaynostalgiaold fashioned family valuesorthodox practicesorthodoxy • Paradise Community Church • populism • Portugalprofaneradicalisationreligionreligious fundamentalism • retrospective identity • ritualsacredsubculture • televangelism
08 OCTOBER 2003

Marham Karimi Nasseri: In-limbo

I am a citizen of Charles De Gaulle Airport. –Marham Karimi Nasseri
Due to a bureaucratic glitch a airline traveller, Mr Nasseri was trapped in the non–place of the transit lounge in the Charles De Gaulle Airport at Roissy, France. For 11 years Nasseri shaved and washed in the passenger facilities, and kept himself occupied watching the eb and flow of the airport traffic. Despite intentions to settle in London in 1988 he was forced to make–do in a bubble of fast–food stores and gift shops until being freed by the actions of a human rights lawyer in 1999.

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TAGS

1988belongingbetweenborder/boundaryCharles de Gaulle Airport • check-point • conduit • customs control • flight-pathgateglobalisation • holidaymaker • hostage • in transitin-limboMarham Karimi Nasserinationalismneither here nor there • nether region • terrorismtransient • transit • transit-lounge • traveller
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