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30 OCTOBER 2015

Ephemeral Media: temporal programmatic recombinatory practice

"Kuleshov's insights gave voice to a temporal recombinatory practice that is older than the film medium, evident for example in nineteenth-century programming of magiclantern exhibitions, where showmen learned to build – and to rework – stories from the slides that they happened to have. But these early practices, particularly as they appeared through film's first decade or so, actually made use of recombinatory logic in a double sense. First, in the hands of film-makers such as Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith, the sequence of shots was manipulated to construct overall textual meaning (just as Kuleshov would later theorise and experimentally demonstrate). Second, the positioning of the films of Porter, Griffiths and others into full programmes (complete with lantern slides, actualités and other narratives) could itself radically transform the meanings of individual films. Here, the programmer (usually the projectionist) could, through simple manipulation of film sequence, comment upon or build different frameworks of coherence for a particular film. This metalevel of recombination was not discussed by Kuleshov and, indeed, largely took residual form in exhibition practice. But it was seized upon by television (and radio), where programmatic recombination would emerge as the economic lifeblood of the industry in the form of the rerun. And it provides one of the keys to television's distinctive deployment of ephemeral programme elements. Television's programming logics turn on a triad of organisational principles when it comes to texts, ephemeral and not: sequence, interpenetration and repetition."

(William Uricchio, 2011)

[2] Derek Kompare (2005) offers an excellent overview of this practice.

William Uricchio, "The Recurrent, the Recombinatory and the Ephemeral," in Paul Grainge, ed., Ephemeral Media: Transitory Screen Culture from Television to YouTube (London: British Film Institute / Palgrave MacMillan, 2011): 23-36 [http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/ephemeral-media-paul-grainge/?isb=9781844574353].

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TAGS

actualites • broadcast era programming • broadcast schedule • careful orchestration of programme units • changing constituency of viewers • commercial television • content recycling • contextualisationcontinuous viewing • David Wark Griffith • displaced micro-programme elements • Edwin Porter • ephemeral media • ephemeral programme elements • exhibition practice • frameworks of coherence • frequency of repetition • iconic footage • interconnect programme elements • interpenetration • interstitials • John Ellis • juxtaposed imagesKuleshov Effect • larger whole • line-up • magic lantern • manipulation of film sequence • mass media • metalevel recombination • metatextNatural Born Killers • news headlines • organisational principles • paratext • Paul Grainge • persuasive logic • programmatic historical framing • programmatic recombination • programme bumpers • programme hooks • programme segments • programme units • projectionist • punctuation of programme sequence • radio • recombinatory logic • recombinatory practice • recycling of footage • recycling programmes • remote controlrepetition • rerun • residual form • rework • rupture engagement • self-programmer • sequence design • sequence of shots • showmen • television and broadcasting • television programmingtelevision studiestemporal contiguity • temporal recombinatory practice • textual meaning • thirty-minute rotation • timed advertisements • transitory screen culture • watching television • William Uricchio • YouTube channel • YouTube segments

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 DECEMBER 2012

North Korean 'Propaganda' is the real viral hit of 2012

"Propaganda 2012 is a 95–minute video that presents itself as a North Korean educational video intending to inform the citizens of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea about the dangers of Western propaganda. The video's uploader, known as 'Sabine', reiterates a statement she gave to the Federal Police regarding the movie's origins. She explains how the film was given to her by people claiming to be North Korean defectors whilst she was visiting Seoul. ...

Although the origins of Propaganda 2012 are contentious, its power lies in the fact that much of its content attempts to avoid invented history. Considering the media buzzwords associated with the alleged country of origin, Propaganda 2012 turns a mirror onto the Western world and seeks to criticise its entire history and culture–from the genocide and imperialism of its past, to the interventionism and consumerism of the modern era. The movie's overall attitude seems to express an intention to educate, shock and caution its audience into realising that people in the West are governed by a super–rich ruling class (The one per cent), who do not offer them true democracy; but instead seek to invade and assimilate as many countries as possible, whilst distracting their population with a smokescreen of consumerism, celebrity, and reality television. This message is spread across the video's 17 chapters, which each attempt to focus on specific examples of Western indoctrination and oppression. The film is regularly punctuated by commentary from an anonymous North Korean professor, and quotes from Western thinkers such as Noam Chomsky and Richard Dawkins. ...

Propaganda 2012 is certainly a film where the audience takes from it what they bring to it, and a variety of emotions can be induced upon viewing. Laughter, cynicism, outrage, contemplation and reflection would all be adequate responses to the video's tough, and often graphic, portrayal of the complex world in which we are living. Yet perhaps the most important thing to remember when watching the film is that the video is available to view uncensored, on a largely unregulated world wide web, and merely represents an extreme end of the vast spectrum of free expression. Therefore, during this festive end to an austere year, enjoy Propaganda 2012 as an interesting and beguiling alternative voice that cries loudly against the dangers of religious consumerism, and reminds us to remain humble and reflect on those less fortunate than ourselves."

(Kieran Turner–Dave, 17 December 2012, Independent Arts Blogs)

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TAGS

20129/11anti-capitalism • brainwashing • capitalismCentury of the Selfcommunismconspiracy theoriesconsumer cultureconsumer desireconsumerism • counter-terrorism • criticismcult of celebritycultural imperialismcultural implicationsdemocracydistractiondocumentary • DPRK • emotive manipulation • false flag • fear • fear of communism • fear of terrorism • free expression • Gangnam Style • genocidehalf-baked ideashistory and culture • hysterics • imperialism • indoctrination • interventionism • invented history • Just Do It • Korea • life in the West • likesmanufacturing consentmoralitynarcissismnationalism • neo-imperialist • Noam ChomskyNorth KoreaoppressionOprah WinfreyParis Hiltonpatriotismpolitical educationpropagandaPropaganda (2012)public relationsQuentin Tarantinoreality televisionreligion • religious consumerism • Richard Dawkins • Sabine (pseudonym) • salvation • September 11 2001shockingsmokescreensocialist realismSociety of the Spectacle (Guy Debord)South Koreaspectacle • Survivor (tv series) • terrorism • the one per cent • trust • Tyra Banks • unconscious desireswatching television

CONTRIBUTOR

David Reid
20 MARCH 2012

The importance of metaphor and narrative to our habits of mind

"Fiction – with its redolent details, imaginative metaphors and attentive descriptions of people and their actions – offers an especially rich replica. Indeed, in one respect novels go beyond simulating reality to give readers an experience unavailable off the page: the opportunity to enter fully into other people's thoughts and feelings.

The novel, of course, is an unequaled medium for the exploration of human social and emotional life. And there is evidence that just as the brain responds to depictions of smells and textures and movements as if they were the real thing, so it treats the interactions among fictional characters as something like real–life social encounters."

(Annie Murphy Paul, 17 March 2012, NYTimes.com)

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affirming experience • booksbrainbrain networksbrain science • cause and effect • cognitive mapcomplex problemscomputer simulationdepictiondescription • emotional life • empathetic individuals • empathyexperiencefictional charactersfrustration • great literature • habits of mind • hidden motives • imaginative metaphors • intentions • interacting instances • languageliterature • longings • mental image • mental state • metaphornarrativenarrative fiction • navigate interactions • neurosciencenovelsoff the page • people and their actions • psychologyreaders • reading novels • real thingreal-life • redolent details • rich replica • simulating reality • simulationsmell • social encounters • social interactionsocial interactionssocial lifesocial worldtexture • the complexities of social life • theory of mindthoughts and feelingswatching television • your brain

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
30 JUNE 2011

Robbie Cooper's Immersion project

"Immersion is a project that records video of people 'through the screen' as they play games, use the internet and watch TV. There's three of us involved in the actual production of the footage– Andrew Wiggins is a camera man based in London, whilst Charly Smith is a First Assistant Director, also based in London. In 2010 we'll be working with the Media Center at Bournemouth University, on an 18 month study called 'War and Leisure', of teenagers and war in the media. Using the Facial Action Coding System, developed by Paul Ekman, we'll be analysing the reactions of teenagers to war in video games, movies, news footage, documentaries and online video. Outside of this study we're also filming people consuming a range of media– everything from the shopping channel, porn, sports, to programming created for babies."

(Robbie Cooper)

Fig.1 Cooper, R. (2010). "Immersion". Bradford, National Media Museum.

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TAGS

absorptionaddiction • analysing reactions • Andrew Wiggins • applied researchBournemouth UniversityBournemouth University Media School • Charly Smith • consumptionengrossmentface • Facial Action Coding System • facial nuancefilming peoplegestureimmersion • Immersion Project (2010) • internet use • intimacyliving picturesmicro expressionsmicroexpressionNational Media Museumnonverbal cuesobservation • Paul Ekman • play games • playing video gamesportraiturereaction video • Robbie Cooper • shopping channel • surveillanceteenagers • through the screen • viewing porn • visual spectaclevoyeurism • War and Leisure • war documentaries • war in news footage • war in the media • war in video games • war movies • watch TV • watching • watching online video • watching sports • watching television

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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