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01 MAY 2015

The Nature of Social Worlds

"The notion of social worlds is used here to refer to a form of social organization which cannot be accurately delineated by spatial, territorial, formal, or membership boundaries. Rather, boundaries of social worlds must be determined by interaction and communication which transcend and cross over the more formal and traditional delineators of organization. The term social world is used here to develop a common referent for a number of related concepts which refer to similar phenomena, Thus, social world phenomena encompass that which other sociologists have referred to as: occupational contact networks, invisible colleges, behavior systems, activity systems, and subcultures. After tracing some of the sociological history of social world analysis, a series of concepts are developed which bring together and bind all of the previously mentioned concepts into a systematic whole. Major aspects of individual involvement, structural features of social worlds, levels of social world analysis, and some implications of a social world perspective are presented. In this way, a program for study and unification of related concepts is presented in preliminary form."

(David Unruh, 1980)

David Unruh (1980). "The Nature of Social Worlds" The Pacific Sociological Review, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Jul., 1980), pp. 271-296.

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TAGS

1980 • a social world perspective • accepting a common worldview • activity systems • assemblages of social actors • behaviour systemsbelief systems • boundaries of social worlds • cognitive orientation • collective commitmentcollective identity • collective representations • collectivity • common worldview • cultural perspective • cultural phenomenon • cultural traditionsDavid Unruh • diffuse worlds • ethnic communities • ethnic minorities • formal organisations • group membership • interaction and communication • invisible college • local worlds • located in relation to others • meaning systems • mediated interaction • networks of interrelated voluntary associations • occupational contact network • patterns of thought • perceptual framework • shared action • shared attitudes • shared common worldview • shared goals • shared intentions • shared meaningsshared practices • shared understandings • shared worldview • social construction of reality • social factssocial organisation • social unit • social world • social world analysis • social world phenomena • social worlds • spatial sites • subcultural communities • subculturethinking and acting as a group member • transcultural communities • united by a common worldview • universe of regularised mutual responsevoluntary participationweltanschauungworldview

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
21 SEPTEMBER 2014

Organisations, practices, actors, and events: Exploring inside the distance running social world

"This paper revisits Unruh's notions of social worlds, exploring the organisations, practices, events and actors involved within the culture of distance running, as an increasingly popular leisure activity. An ethnographic research design was utilised using a combination of interviews, observation and participant observation. Data was collected over a two-year period on a weekly basis at two local distance running clubs, and also at a series of international distance running events. This study examines the distance running world from the 'emic' perspective of the twenty participants involved. The key findings illustrate how the distance running social world permits both development and confirmation of a running identity and, with it, social fulfilment. In addition to the four main components of a distance running social world, this paper highlights a paradox whereby individuals follow an individual pursuit within the social world of the distance running community – highlighting that the focus is on both the individual and the social, an area which sociologists have to date not extensively analysed within the context of sport."

(Richard Shipway, Immy Holloway and Ian Jones, 2013)

Richard Shipway, Immy Holloway, Ian Jones (2013). "Organisations, practices, actors, and events: Exploring inside the distance running social world", International Review for the Sociology of Sport 2013;48 259-276.

TAGS

2013anthropology • behavioural science • collective identityDavid Unruh • distance runner • distance running • distance running community • emic • emic perspective • emics • ethnographic researchfield research • folkloristics • group membership • healthy body • healthy mind • Ian Jones • identity production • Immy Holloway • individual pursuit • interview (research method)leisure activity • observer • participant observation • Richard Shipway • running • running body • running club • running community • running identity • serious leisure • social fulfillment • social fulfilment • social groupsocial identity • social identity theory • social sciencesocial worldsocial worldssport and recreation • sport ethnography • sport tourism

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 MAY 2013

With Enough Data, the Numbers Speak for Themselves...

"Not a chance. The promoters of big data would like us to believe that behind the lines of code and vast databases lie objective and universal insights into patterns of human behavior, be it consumer spending, criminal or terrorist acts, healthy habits, or employee productivity. But many big–data evangelists avoid taking a hard look at the weaknesses. Numbers can't speak for themselves, and data sets –– no matter their scale –– are still objects of human design. The tools of big–data science, such as the Apache Hadoop software framework, do not immunize us from skews, gaps, and faulty assumptions. Those factors are particularly significant when big data tries to reflect the social world we live in, yet we can often be fooled into thinking that the results are somehow more objective than human opinions. Biases and blind spots exist in big data as much as they do in individual perceptions and experiences. Yet there is a problematic belief that bigger data is always better data and that correlation is as good as causation."

(Kate Crawford, 12 May 2013, Foreign Policy)

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TAGS

Apache Hadoop • biasbig data • big-data science • blind spot • causal relationshipscausationcodecomputer utopianism • consumer spending • criminal actscyberspacedata abstractiondata analysisdata collection and analysisdataset • Foreign Policy (magazine) • globalisationhealthy habitsimplicit informationimplicit meaningInternetinternet utopianism • looking at the numbers • network ecologynetworked society • objects of human design • patterns of human behaviourpatterns of meaningquantified measurementreliability and validityscientific ideas • security intelligence • social world • terrorist acts • Twitterunderlying order • universal insights • universal methoduniversal rationality

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 MARCH 2012

The importance of metaphor and narrative to our habits of mind

"Fiction – with its redolent details, imaginative metaphors and attentive descriptions of people and their actions – offers an especially rich replica. Indeed, in one respect novels go beyond simulating reality to give readers an experience unavailable off the page: the opportunity to enter fully into other people's thoughts and feelings.

The novel, of course, is an unequaled medium for the exploration of human social and emotional life. And there is evidence that just as the brain responds to depictions of smells and textures and movements as if they were the real thing, so it treats the interactions among fictional characters as something like real–life social encounters."

(Annie Murphy Paul, 17 March 2012, NYTimes.com)

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TAGS

affirming experience • booksbrainbrain networksbrain science • cause and effect • cognitive mapcomplex problemscomputer simulationdepictiondescription • emotional life • empathetic individuals • empathyexperiencefictional charactersfrustration • great literature • habits of mind • hidden motives • imaginative metaphors • intentions • interacting instances • languageliterature • longings • mental image • mental state • metaphornarrativenarrative fiction • navigate interactions • neurosciencenovelsoff the page • people and their actions • psychologyreaders • reading novels • real thingreal-life • redolent details • rich replica • simulating reality • simulationsmell • social encounters • social interactionsocial interactionssocial lifesocial worldtexture • the complexities of social life • theory of mindthoughts and feelingswatching television • your brain

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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