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08 JANUARY 2013

Concurrent Engineering versus Sequential Engineering

"Sequential engineering, also known as serial engineering, is characterized by downstream departments supplying information to design only after a product has already been designed, verified and prototyped [1], in order to change what design engineering did wrong, or what could have been improved. In serial engineering, the various functions such as design, manufacturing, and customer service are separated. The information in serial engineering flows in succession from phase to phase. For example, the prototype model, verified by either simulation or prototyping or both, is reviewed for manufacturing, quality and service. Usually, some changes are suggested after the review. If the suggested changes in the design are made, there are increases in the cost and time to develop the product, resulting in delays in marketing the product. If the changes cannot be made because of market pressure to launch the product quickly, or the fact that the design is already behind schedule, then specialists in other functional areas or managers from manufacturing, quality, and service, among others, are informed of the impending problems. In sequential engineering a department starts working only when the preceding one has finished, and, once a department has finished working on a project, or part of a project, this is not planned to come back: information flow is only one way.

On the contrary, in CE all functional areas are integrated within the design process. In this case information continuously flows back and forth among all functions. During the design process CE draws on various disciplines to trade-off parameters such as manufacturability, testability and serviceability, along with customer performance, size, weight, and cost [1-2]. The decision making process in a CE environment differs from sequential engineering in that at every stage decisions are taken considering the constraints and the objectives of all stages of the product life cycle, thus taking at the product design level issues that are usually addressed much later, thus giving the possibility to achieve a better overall solution [2,3]. The integration of other functional areas within the design process helps to discover hard to solve problems at the design stage. Thus, when the final design is verified, it is already manufacturable, testable, serviceable, and of high quality. The most distinguishing feature of CE is the multidisciplinary, cross-functional team approach. Product development costs range between 5% and 15% of total costs, but decisions taken at this stage affect 60–95% of total costs [4]. Therefore it is at the product development stage that the most relevant savings can be achieved."

(Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu, 2011)

Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu (2011). "Different Approaches to Concurrent Engineering"

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TAGS

competitive capabilities • concurrent engineering (CE)cross-functional design teams • cross-functional team approach • decision making process • design engineeringdesign processdevelopment life cycle • downstream • engineering and manufacturing • functional areas • manufacturability • manufacturable • manufacturingmultidisciplinary teams • new product development • over-the-wall design processover-the-wall engineering • overall solution • product development • product development methods • product development stage • product-lifecycle • sequential engineering (SE) • sequential stages • serial engineering • serial prototyping • serviceability • serviceable • silos • successive phases • testability • testable

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 JANUARY 2013

Facing ambiguity differently across design, business and technology

"team[s] of students of mixed disciplines worked together to understand and map a problem–space (identified by the client). They then defined a solution–space before focussing on a particular opportunity outcome. The range of projects included incremental innovation opportunities represented by the Lego and Hasbro projects through radical Philips work to truly disruptive work with Unilever. The studies confirmed stereotypical view points of how different disciplines may behave. They showed that design students were more (but not completely) comfortable with the ambiguous aspects associated with 'phase zero' problem–space exploration and early stage idea generation. They would only commit to a solution when time pressures dictated that this was essential in order to complete the project deliverables on time and they were happy to experiment with, and develop, new methods without a clear objective in mind. In contrast, the business students were uncomfortable with this ambiguity and were more readily able to come to terms with incremental innovation projects where a systematic approach could be directly linked to an end goal. The technologists, were more comfortable with the notion of the ambiguous approach leading to more radical innovation, but needed to wrap this in an analytical process that grounded experimentation. Meanwhile, the designers were unclear and unprepared to be precise when it came to committing to a business model. "

(Mark Bailey, 2010, p.42)

Bailey, M. (2010). "Working at the Edges". Networks, Art Design Media Subject Centre (ADM–HEA). Autumn 2010.

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2007ADM-HEAambiguityambiguity and uncertainty • ambiguous approach • analytical processapproaches to ambiguitybusinessbusiness modelclear objectivesclient needscollaboration • core competency • Cox Reviewdecision making • design outcome • design teamsdesign thinkingdisciplinary culturesdisciplinary knowledge • disruptive work • Dorothy Leonard-Barton • end goal • grounded experimentation • Hasbro • idea generationincremental innovationinnovation practice skillsinterdisciplinarityinterpretive perspective • learning cultures • LEGO • multidisciplinary design • multidisciplinary teamsNorthumbria Universityopen-ended process • pedagogical cultures • phase zero • Philips Researchproblem-solvingproblem-solving • problem-space • project deliverablesproject teamsradical innovationrequirements gatheringsolution-space • sub-disciplinary specialisation • systematic approach • T-shaped individuals • T-shaped people • T-shaped skillsthinking stylesUnileverworking methodsworking practices

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
09 JULY 2012

Start JudgeGill: UK Start Academy Grad Programme

"Are you ready to be part of our golden generation? We've built a new agency that blurs the line between the physical and the interactive. Now we're looking for exceptional people to work in multi–disciplinary teams, creating experiences that make them, and us, famous. We need supremely skilled Designers, Developers, Strategists, Copywriters, Account Handlers and Producers. If that's you, then there's a place in our graduate academy to define your career and craft in this connected world. Closing date for the July intake is Friday 13th July."

(Start JudgeGill, UK)

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2012 • account handler • account managerAdidasagency cultureBarclays Bank • blurs the line • careerconnected world • copywriter • copywriters • copywriting • Costa Coffee • craftcreative industries • define your career • design agencydesign businessdesign career • design careers • design graduatesdesign industrydesign professionalsdesign projectdesign studiodesignersdevelopersdigital design • Easyjet • exceptional people • golden generation • grad programme • graduate academy • graduate bridgegraduate designers • graduate programme • graduate trainee • graphic designinteractive designinterior designMarks and Spencermoving imagemultidisciplinarymultidisciplinary teams • new agency • permanent jobs • portfolio review • portfolio viewing • post-graduate employmentpost-graduate scheme • producer • producers • professional practicereal-life studio • Start Academy Grad Programme • Start JudgeGill • strategists • structured training programme • trainee scheme • transition into post-graduate employmentUKVirgin Mediawork placement

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
18 MARCH 2012

Integrating the process of design thinking into the classroom

"When you think of design thinking, think of innovative outcomes – like the iPod, or that perfect peeler that both cuts well and has an amazing grip, or the Aravind Eye Care system that allows for thousands of underresourced families in India to address cataract issues.

Pioneers of design thinking called it the process of 'a practical, creative resolution of problems or issues that looks for an improved future result' (Simon, 1969). Recently, educational researchers have been asking what happens when educators integrate the process of design thinking into the classroom. Their findings include numerous examples of enhanced student learning."

(Mount Vernon Institute for Innovation, Mount Vernon Presbyterian School, Atlanta)

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21st centurybetter-functioning productschildrenclassroomcollaborationcomplexity • constructivist theories of learning • convergent thinking • creative resolution of problems • creativitycreativity skillscritical thinking • D.E.E.P. • design approach • design innovationdesign responsibilitydesign thinking • design thinking approach • design thinking in classroomdesign-based learningdesign-oriented thinking • deviate from facts • Discover Empathise Experiment Produce • divergent thinkingeducationeducatoreffective communication • enhanced student learning • experimentation • exploring possibilities • hands on • Herbert Simon • innovative outcomes • K-4 • know-how • learning as a social activity • multidisciplinary teams • MVPS • pedagogyproblem-oriented thinkingproblem-solvingproduct design • science concepts • science lab • scripted approach to enquiry • socio-technological dimensionssolving problemsspeculative designstudent achievementteaching science • traditional learning frameworks

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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