"The advancement of internet technologies and the rapid rise of virtual communities have instigated internet human flesh search (HFS) or cyber manhunt in western countries   that it has become a cyber phenomenon. HFS originated in China. The term was translated from 人肉搜尋 (Ren Rou Sou Suo ) which broadly refers to “an act of searching information about individuals or any subjects through the online collaboration of multiple users” .
Participation and collaboration by users play a vital role in the HFS process. On one hand, HFS practices, which are considered a manifestation of citizen empowerment and civil participation, are supported and applauded by other countries. On the other, majority of high-profile HFS cases in China have become aggressive and vicious, arousing research interest on the involved legal , privacy , and social issues .
Although Chen and Sharma  provide a comprehensive review of HFS that is supplemented by Chao , there is still a gap in research and in the analysis of HFS on a global context. The Taiwanese context is worthy of review because despite the abundance of HFS incidents occurring in the country, few studies on those have been shared to the international community."
(Yu-Hui Tao, Chian-Hsueng Chao, 2011)
Tao, Y.-H. and Chao, C.-S., Analysis of human flesh search in the Taiwanese context, in proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications, December 16-18, Shenzhen, China, 2011
"Yet while anonymity offers a potential bulwark against surveillance, for those who do not wish to be watched, it has also helped in the development of that part of the online world known as the dark web.
Sites on the dark web like Silk Road have used Tor technology to hide their location and yet still be available to users who wish to visit them.
The dark web has now become a focus for law enforcement officers who believe it is facilitating a variety of illegal activities including financial crime and child abuse."
(Mike Radford, 3 September 2014, BBC News)
Fig.1 "Inside the Dark Web" 2014, television programme, BBC Two – Horizon, Series 51, Episode 4, first broadcast: 3 September 2014.
"This article studies an interesting Internet phenomenon known as Human Flesh Search which illustrates the far-reaching impacts of the Internet that is less documented. Due to its huge threat on individual privacy, human flesh search has introduced huge controversy and invited heated debate in China. This paper reviews its growth, explores the impetuses, identifies the distinctions from the alternative search engines, and summarizes the benefits and drawbacks. Furthermore, the paper develops a systematic review of the prior literature in human flesh search by surveying major sources such as academic journals, national and international conferences, and public and private databases. Finally, the paper identifies five research gaps in the literature and offers an initial interpretation and analysis of these remaining research issues. Human flesh search is still growing and the current study helps the computing field learn the past and present of this emerging phenomenon and properly manage its future development."
(Rui Chen and Sushil Sharma, 2011)
Rui Chen and Sushil Sharma (2011). Journal of Information Privacy and Security, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2011, pages 50-71.
"The controversial spy laws have been passed by Parliament by 61 votes to 59. The laws were drafted in the wake of a succession of blunders by New Zealand's foreign intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security Bureau, which included illegally spying on German internet entrepreneur Kim Dotcom. Earlier, Prime Minister John Key acknowledged new surveillance laws have 'alarmed' some people but blames the Government's opponents for stoking their fears. Legislation giving the GCSB the power to spy on New Zealanders was debated in Parliament today ahead of being passed into law."
(Tracy Watkins, 21 August 2013, Fairfax NZ News)
"This paper argues that learning outcomes need to be reclaimed from their current use as devices for monitoring and audit, and returned to their proper use in aiding good teaching and learning. We require a broader, flexible and more realistic understanding of learning outcomes, better suited to the realities of the classroom and of practical use to those teachers who wish to respond to the enthusiasm of their students. To this end, a new model is produced that starts from the idea of an articulated curriculum, and embraces both intended and emergent learning outcomes. The model employs the distinction between predicted and unpredicted learning outcomes, together with the distinction between those that are desirable and those that are undesirable. The resulting account is intended to aid understanding of the nature and proper use of learning outcomes in teaching and learning."
(Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith, p.357, 2003)
Trevor Hussey & Patrick Smith (2003). "The Uses of Learning Outcomes", Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2003, pp.357–368, ISSN 1356–2517 (print)/ISSN 1470–1294 (online)/03/030357–12, 2003 Taylor & Francis Ltd., DOI: 10.1080/1356251032000088574