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26 OCTOBER 2014

Donald Norman: The Research-Practice Gulf

"There is a great gulf between the research community and practice. Moreover, there is often a great gull between what designers do and what industry needs. We believe we know how to do design, but this belief is based more on faith than on data, and this belief reinforces the gulf between the research community and practice.

I find that the things we take most for granted are seldom examined or questioned. As a result, it is often our most fundamental beliefs that are apt to be wrong.

In this talk, deliberately intended to be controversial. I examine some of our most cherished beliefs. Examples: design research helps create breakthrough products; complexity is bad and simplicity good; there is a natural chain from research to product."

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2010abstract models • applied social science • appropriately complex representationbreakthrough innovation • breakthrough products • call to actionChicagocomplexitydesign and innovationdesign communitydesign conferencedesign practicedesign research • design research conference • designer-centred designdisruptive innovationdogmaDonald Normanethnographic design approach • existing product categories • failure of design research • fundamental beliefs • generalised modelsHCDhuman-centred designideation • IIT Institute of Design (ID) • Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) • incremental innovationinnovation process • innovative breakthroughs • keynote address • product developmentradical innovationrapid prototypingreal-world designreal-world projectsresearch communityresearch-practice gulf • results-driven • simplicitytesting perpetuates mediocrity • translational engineering • translational sciencewhat designers do • what industry needs

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 JANUARY 2013

Concurrent Engineering versus Sequential Engineering

"Sequential engineering, also known as serial engineering, is characterized by downstream departments supplying information to design only after a product has already been designed, verified and prototyped [1], in order to change what design engineering did wrong, or what could have been improved. In serial engineering, the various functions such as design, manufacturing, and customer service are separated. The information in serial engineering flows in succession from phase to phase. For example, the prototype model, verified by either simulation or prototyping or both, is reviewed for manufacturing, quality and service. Usually, some changes are suggested after the review. If the suggested changes in the design are made, there are increases in the cost and time to develop the product, resulting in delays in marketing the product. If the changes cannot be made because of market pressure to launch the product quickly, or the fact that the design is already behind schedule, then specialists in other functional areas or managers from manufacturing, quality, and service, among others, are informed of the impending problems. In sequential engineering a department starts working only when the preceding one has finished, and, once a department has finished working on a project, or part of a project, this is not planned to come back: information flow is only one way.

On the contrary, in CE all functional areas are integrated within the design process. In this case information continuously flows back and forth among all functions. During the design process CE draws on various disciplines to trade-off parameters such as manufacturability, testability and serviceability, along with customer performance, size, weight, and cost [1-2]. The decision making process in a CE environment differs from sequential engineering in that at every stage decisions are taken considering the constraints and the objectives of all stages of the product life cycle, thus taking at the product design level issues that are usually addressed much later, thus giving the possibility to achieve a better overall solution [2,3]. The integration of other functional areas within the design process helps to discover hard to solve problems at the design stage. Thus, when the final design is verified, it is already manufacturable, testable, serviceable, and of high quality. The most distinguishing feature of CE is the multidisciplinary, cross-functional team approach. Product development costs range between 5% and 15% of total costs, but decisions taken at this stage affect 60–95% of total costs [4]. Therefore it is at the product development stage that the most relevant savings can be achieved."

(Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu, 2011)

Ecehan SofuoÄŸlu (2011). "Different Approaches to Concurrent Engineering"

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competitive capabilities • concurrent engineering (CE)cross-functional design teams • cross-functional team approach • decision making process • design engineeringdesign processdevelopment life cycle • downstream • engineering and manufacturing • functional areas • manufacturability • manufacturable • manufacturingmultidisciplinary teams • new product development • over-the-wall design processover-the-wall engineering • overall solution • product development • product development methods • product development stage • product-lifecycle • sequential engineering (SE) • sequential stages • serial engineering • serial prototyping • serviceability • serviceable • silos • successive phases • testability • testable

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
20 FEBRUARY 2012

Interbrand: a global branding consultancy

"Interbrand started in 1974 when the world still thought of brands as just another word for logo.

We have changed the world's view of branding and brand management by creating and managing brands as valuable business assets."

(Interbrand)

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1974brand • brand design • brand managementbrand strategy • brand valuation • brandingbranding design • branding services • brands • business assets • consultancy • cross-cultural branding • cross-language branding • Dunlop Corporation • globalgraphic design • identity consultancy • Interbrand (agency) • John Murphy • legal searches • logomanaging brands • Novamark (agency) • Omnicom Group • product development

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
27 APRIL 2011

User-Centred Design: Personas

"Personas are 'hypothetical archetypes' of actual users. They are not real people, but they represent real people during the design process. A persona is a fictional characterization of a user.

The purpose of personas is to make the users seem more real, to help designers keep realistic ideas of users throughout the design process. Personas have proper names (that are often catchy and related to their user group name, for example, Hanna Reed–Smith, Human Resources Specialist) and are represented with pictures. Designers and evaluators refer to personas when considering design specifics; for example, 'Would Hanna know to click on that button to add a new employee?' Personas put a name, face, and characteristics on users to keep the users in the forefront of design decisions."

(Shawn Lawton Henry)

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accessibility • analysis phase • archetypal charactersarchetype • brand loyalty • catchy names • characteristicsdemographics • design hypotheticals • design methoddesign processdesign techniquedisability • experience levels • fictional account • fictional characterisation • fictional scenarioshuman factorshuman-centred design • hypothetical archetypes • market segmentation • marketing personas • marketing teammotivational needs • personal details • personas (UCD)product developmenttarget audiencethinking tooluser analysisuser attitudesuser behavioursuser demographics • user goals • user group name • user groupsuser motivationsuser perspective • user profile • User-Centred Design (UCD)

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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