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Which clippings match 'Brenda Laurel' keyword pg.1 of 1
08 OCTOBER 2012

LUDOLOGY MEETS NARRATOLOGY: Similitude and differences between (video)games and narrative

"Literary theory and narratology have been helpful to understand cybertexts and videogames. Aristotelian Poetics [Laurel, 1993], Russian formalism [Porush and Hivner, ?], and poststructuralism [Landow, 1992] are some of the different perspectives that have been used to study the subject.

Some authors see cybertexts and videogames as a new form of or as an expansion of traditional narrative or drama. The fact is that these computer programs share many elements with stories: characters, chained actions, endings, settings.

However, there is another dimension that has been usually almost ignored when studying this kind of computer software: to analyze them as games.

The problems of using a 'game' perspective are many. Basically, traditional games have always had less academic status than other objects, like narrative. And because of this, game formalist studies are fragmented through different disciplines, and not very well developed.

In this paper we will propose to explore videogames and cybertexts as games. Our intention is not to replace the narratologic approach, but to complement it. We want to better understand what is the relationship with narrative and videogames; their similarities and differences."

(Gonzalo Frasca, 1999)

Frasca, Gonzalo (1999) 'Ludology Meets Narratology. Similitude and Differences between (Video)games and Narrative'. Originally published in Finnish in Parnasso 1999: 3, 365–71.


1999 • Albert Sidney Hornby • Andre Lalande • Aristotelian Poetics • Aristotles Poetics • Brenda Laurelcausalitycausally relatedcausally related narrative events • chained actions • character • Claude Bremond • computer programme • computer software • cybertext • cybertexts • Daniel Vidart • David Porush • ending • Espen AarsethFILE (festival) • game formalist studies • game perspective • game studiesgame theorygames • George Landow • Gerald Prince • Gonzalo Frasca • Jean Piagetliterary theory • ludology • narrative and videogames • narratologic approach • narratologynew form • Oswald Ducrot • post-structuralism • Roger Caillois • Roland Barthes • Russian formalism • Schaeffer Jean-Marie • setting • similarities and differences • stories • studying games • Todd Hivnor • traditional drama • traditional narrative • Umberto Ecovideo gamevideogames


Simon Perkins
18 FEBRUARY 2012

Irony and Utopia: History of Computer Art

"Some pioneers of VR technology, including Brenda Laurel and Jaron Lanier, have been among its principal exponents, suggesting that the creation of virtual worlds and of shared cyberspaces will have revolutionary social consequences and allow hitherto unimagined forms of human expression. Such a view is echoed in the work of academic theorists like Donna Haraway and Alluquere Rosanne Stone, who believe that advanced information technologies may have radical political consequences, an idea which they pursue through the image of cyborgs which blur the distinction between humans and machines. These ideas can also be found in the use of VR as a theme in youth culture, for example the cyberpunk nightclubs and cafes in London and San Francisco. Here too, we find an agenda for cultural and political change, in this case, again, premised on innovations in human–machine interface technologies."

(Ralph Schroeder, 1994, pp.519–528)

2). Ralph Schroeder (1994). "Cyberculture, cyborg post–modernism and the sociology of virtual reality technologies: surfing the soul in the information age", Futures 1994 26(5) 519–528 (from a reading list created by Beau Sievers for the lecture series titled "Irony and Utopia: History of Computer Art" at the Bruce High Quality Foundation University).



1994 • advanced information technologies • Alluquere Rosanne Stone • BHQFU • Brenda Laurelcomputer artcultural and political changecyberculturecyberpunk • cyberpunk nightclubs • cyborgDonna HarawayHCI • history of computer art • human expression • human-machine interface technologies • humans and machinesinformation ageirony • Jaron Lanier • Londonman machinepostmodernism • radical political consequences • Ralph Schroeder • San Francisco • shared cyberspaces • social consequencestechnology innovation • unimagined forms of human expression • utopiavirtual realityvirtual reality technologiesvirtual worldsVR • VR technology • youth culture


Simon Perkins
18 OCTOBER 2011

Cyberpunk: the future has already happened

"Cyberpunk' is a 60–minute documentary, the ad for which states: 'What started as a book became a literary movement. What was a literary movement became a subculture'.

And that's one of the major flaws of this film. It perpetuates the general myth that everything 'cyberpunk' expanded out of 'Neuromancer' and Gibson's vision. In truth, most of the stuff covered here (virtual reality, hacking, industrial music, cybernetics, designer drugs, anarchy) was already developing quite nicely before Lord Gibson, Chairman Bruce, and the rest (Shirley, Rucker, Shiner) were kind enough to provide a fictional universe in which to fuse these disparate explorations.

The production of 'Cyberpunk' is very inconsistent, too –– some parts are professional documentary, while other parts have the odor of quick–cash opportunism. The breathy women narrator is ultimately aggravating, oh–ing and ah–ing over all this stuff.

But there is some good material here, including interviews with Gibson, Leary, Scott Fisher (of NASA/Ames), Brenda Laurel, Vernon Reed (Living Color), Bill Leeb (Front Line Assembly) and others. There's also some cool computer graphics (circa 1989) and an industrial soundtrack with Front Line Assembly, Ministry, and Severed Heads.

'Cyberpunk' is still a must–see since it's the only documentary about cyberpunk that we have."

(G. Branwyn)

Fig.1 Produced and Directed by Marianne Trench and Peter von Brandenberg, Intercon Productions, 1990.



1990 • anarchy • augmentation • Bill Leeb • bodybody modificationBrenda Laurel • Bruce Bethke • computer graphics • computer virus • corporeal augmentationcyberneticscyberpunk • Cyberpunk (1990) • cyborgdesigner drugsdystopiaembodimentethicsfictional universe • Front Line Assembly • hackinghacktivismhuman beings • industrial music • informationinformation wants to be free • John Shirley • Lewis Shiner • Living Color • Mariana TrenchMinistry (band)mutant scienceNASA Ames Research CenterNeuromancerorgan • phone phreaking • posthumanRudy Ruckersci-fiScott Fisher • Severed Heads (band) • speculative designtechnological determinismtechnophobiaTimothy Leary • Vernon Reed • virtual realityvirusvisions of the futureVRWilliam Gibson


Simon Perkins
03 JANUARY 2004

Interactive media: pioneering artists

An incomplete list: Agnes Hegedüs, Brenda Laurel, Carl Eugene Loeffler, Charlotte Davies, Christian Möller, Christian Sommerer, Dick Lüsebrink, Edmond Couchot, Grahame Weinbren, Gyorgy Kepes, Jean–Louis Boissier, Jeffrey Shaw, Joachim Sauter, Knowbotic Research, Laurent Mignonneau, Lynn Hershman, Michael MacKenzie, Monika Fleischmann, Myron Krueger, Nadia Magnenat–Thalmann, Paul Garrin, Paul Yuxweluptun, Peter Weibel, Rachel Strickland, Roy Ascott, Ryohei Nakatsu, Toni Dove, Toshio Iwai, Ulrike Gabriel, Wolfgang Strauss

Oliver Grau. 'Virtual Art' p.173–176



Agnes HegedusartistBrenda Laurel • Carl Eugene Loeffler • Char Davies • Christian Moller • Christian Sommerer • Dick Lusebrink • digital pioneers • Edmond Couchot • Grahame Weinbren • Gyorgy Kepesinteractioninteractiveinteractive media • Jean-Louis Boissier • Jeffrey ShawJoachim Sauter • Knowbotic Research • Laurent Mignonneau • Lynn Hershman • Michael MacKenzie • Monika Fleischmann • Myron Krueger • Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann • Oliver Grau • Paul Garrin • Paul Yuxweluptun • Peter Weibel • Picht • Rachel Strickland • Roy Ascott • Ryohei Nakatsu • telematic art • Toni Dove • Toshio Iwai • Ulrike Gabriel • Wolfgang Strauss • ZKM

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