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Which clippings match 'Metonymy' keyword pg.1 of 1
01 NOVEMBER 2012

Visual Rhetoric

"The very existence of a visual language gives rise to the concept of visual rhetoric. As its spoken counterpart does, visual rhetoric has its own figures and its own way of using them."

(Juan C. Dürsteler, 19/05/2003)

Erik Johansson "Go Your Own Road", []



Absolut Vodka • advertising imagesGenevaGiuseppe Arcimboldo • mascot • metonymypersonification • Southwestern Electric Corporation • VertumnaliaVertumnusvisual languagevisual punvisual rhetoric • Willie Wiredhand


Simon Perkins
19 JUNE 2011

A comparable dichotomy between metaphor and metonymy

"Roman Jakobson found a comparable dichotomy between metaphor and metonymy in his seminal paper, 'Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances,' published in his monograph, Fundamentals of Language (Mouton & Co––Gravenhage, 1956). Here Jakobson discussed two types of aphasia based on complementary disorders in comprehending language: (a) a similarity disorder whereby one primarily depends on syntactic context to draw words into use (pp. 63–64); and (b) a contiguity disorder whereby one's style becomes a telegraphic 'word heap' without much, if any, evidence of syntax (pp. 71–72). According to Jakobson, two faculties are thus involved in the use of language: (a) selection in the choice of words to express an idea (metaphoric); and (b) the combination of words, again to express an idea (metonymic). Elaborate sentences without a particularly impressive vocabulary (for example in the prose of Henry James) illustrates the similarity disorder, while big vocabulary in loosely constructed sentences (for example in the prose of James Joyce) illustrates the contiguity disorder. Joyce heaped together his words with apparent abandonment, while James strenuously belaboured his syntax to produce exactly the right effect––an effect he found difficult to articulate with words alone as opposed to their combination in intricate sentences. An inferior choice of words, Jakobson claimed, is at the sacrifice of metaphor, whereas an inferior combination of words is at the sacrifice of metonymy (p. 76)."

(Edward Jayne)

Jakobson, R. (1971). "Fundamentals of Language". The Hague/Paris: Mouton, Harvard University and Morris Halle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

1). Edward Jayne. "The Metaphor–Metonymy Binarism"


aphasia • choice of wordsClaude Levi-Strauss • combination of words • comprehending language • constructed sentences • contiguitydeconstructionismFerdinand de Saussuregrammar • Henry James • ideasJacques DerridaJacques LacanJames Joyce • John Langshaw Austin • language • langue • langue and parole • Louis Hjelmslev • metaphormetaphoric • metonymic • metonymynaming • paradigmatic relations • parole • Paul de Man • rhetoricRoland Barthes • Roman Jakobson • selection • semiology • semiotics • sentences • signifiedsignifierstructuralism • syntactic context • syntagmatic relations • syntaxtelegraphictropesvocabularyword heapwords


Simon Perkins
13 FEBRUARY 2004

Moholy-Nagy: Frames Within Space-frames

"A primary characteristic of the 'language' of montage is its tendency towards multiple and layered meanings. One example of this multiplicity is the combination of incongruous visual and verbal elements within the space of a single picture. ...these individual elements are combined in compositions, which are more like energy fields than traditional perspectival space (with its attendant sense of rational time). The syntax of montage is non–linear; any single element tends towards a multiplicity of possible connections with other elements. Meanings are contextual and relative, and the literalness of photography gives way to metaphor, metonymy and allegory. These effects are created not only by the cutting and fragmentation of elements but also by the space between the elements which, like gaps that must be jumped, activate and energise the image. It would not be incorrect to see these 'fields' as a kind of shattered mirror reflection of the energy, confusion and contradictions of life as the Dadaists saw it. Many of their works, however, emphasise the desire, perhaps the necessity, to see below this surface reflection to the underlying structure of society or the psyche. Iconographically, the most consistent reminder of that desire is the repeated use of anatomical photographs and diagrams in the work of Hausmann and Ernst. In addition to their visual impact as figures, these elements tend to constantly remind the viewer to be conscious of what is below the surface, even if that underlying layer is not visible. Thus, during this period the foundations were laid for the Surrealists' examination of the unconscious and for John Heartfield's satirical analysis of the ideology of Nazi Germany in the early 30's. Apart from and following Dada's end as an organised movement, important photomontages were also produced by Constructivist artists such as Lazio Moholy–Nagy and Alexander Rodchenko."
(John Pickel, 1988)

Title on Object: Eifersucht
Published Title: Jealousy

collage with photographic/photo–mechanical and drawn elements
63.8 x 56.1 cm.
Museum Purchase; ex–collection Sybil Moholy–Nagy
GEH NEG: 4339

Old GEH Number: 4685–11



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