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03 MARCH 2015

Chapter 2: Doing Research in the Real World by David Gray



2009action research • analytical surveys • constructivismcritical enquiry • David Gray • deductive reasoning • descriptive studies • epistemological perspectives • epistemologyethnography • exploratory studies • feminismhermeneutics • heuristic enquiry • inductive and deductive reasoning • inductive reasoning • interpretive studies • interpretivismJohn DeweymethodologyMichael Crottymultiple methods • naturalistic enquiry • objectivism • ontological perspectives • ontology • phenomenological research • phenomenologypositivismpostmodernismpragmatismrealismresearch approachesresearch methodologiesresearch methodologyresearch methods • research perspectives • research strategiessubjectivismsymbolic interactionismtheoretical perspectives


Liam Birtles
06 JANUARY 2013

Hermeneutic Phenomenology and Phenomenology: A Comparison of Historical and Methodological Considerations

"a variety of research methodologies have grown in popularity including phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, and hermeneutic phenomenology (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000). As this has occurred, concern has risen about the use of qualitative methodologies without sufficient understanding of the rigor necessary to ethically utilize them (Maggs–Rapport, 2001). More specifically, phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology are often referred to interchangeably, without questioning any distinction between them. The purpose of this article is to discuss the early philosophical development of selected key issues related to phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology and support the position that differences and similarities exist. This exploration will begin with the phenomenology of Husserl and then move to explore heremeneutic phenomenology through Heidegger and Gadamer. Exploration will be given to how these different philosophical perspectives have an impact on the practice of phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology as research methodologies."

(Susann M. Laverty, 2003)

Laverty, S. M. (2003). "Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations". International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3). Article 3. Retrieved 06 January 2013 from


conducting researchEdmund Husserlepistemologyethnography • form and nature of reality • Frances Maggs-Rapport • grounded theoryHans-Georg Gadamer • hermeneutic phenomenology • hermeneuticsInternational Journal of Qualitative MethodsMartin HeideggermethodologyNorman Denzinontological perspectiveontologyphenomenology • philosophical development • philosophical perspectives • qualitative methodologiesresearch methodologiesrigourYvonna Lincoln


Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2011

Fragments and Figments of Knowledge: the Documentation of Contemporary Art

"The research project Methodology for the Documentation of Contemporary Art was initiated by Professor Dr Hubertus Kohle and Dr Harald Kraemer at the interdisciplinary Kulturwissenschaftliches Forschungskolleg at the Universities of Aachen, Bonn and Cologne [1]. The main aim of this project (1999–2001) was to develop strategies and structures for a methodology for the study and documentation of modern and contemporary art. Furthermore, the project was to demonstrate, through specific characteristics of modern art, the need for new documentation procedures and the use of digital technologies. Traditional, static methods of documentation can be significantly extended through the application of multimedia electronic technologies. The diverse prerequisites and specific demands of contemporary art require a changed methodology of analysis and documentation. Hence, the aim of the project was to find the answers to the following questions: to what extent can the revamped documentation methods provide a basis for meaningful interpretation of contemporary art? And what is the role of interactive digital multimedia technology here?"

(Harald Kraemer, 2001)

[1] Kulturwissenschaftliches Forschungskolleg (SFB / FK 427) 'Medien und kulturelle Kommunikation'. Nicole Birtsch, Kathrin Lucht, Martina Nied, Simone Schmickl and Christina Hemsley were the other members of the team.


2001archive • Bonn • Colognecontemporary art • digital art history • digital culture • digital multimedia technology • digital technologiesdocumentation • documentation procedures • Harald Kraemer • Hubertus Kohle • ICTintegrationmanagementmedia artmethodologymodern artmultimedianew mediaorderingprocedureresearch projectstaticstorage • structuring • technology • Universities of Aachen


Simon Perkins
03 APRIL 2010

Interpretive research is knowledge that is gained, or at least filtered, through social constructions such as language, consciousness, and shared meanings

"Following Klein & Myers (1999), the foundation assumption for interpretive research is that knowledge is gained, or at least filtered, through social constructions such as language, consciousness, and shared meanings. In addition to the emphasis on the socially constructed nature of reality, interpretive research acknowledges the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is being explored, and the situational constraints shaping this process. In terms of methodology, interpretive research does not predefine dependent or independent variables, does not set out to test hypotheses, but aims to produce an understanding of the social context of the phenomenon and the process whereby the phenomenon influences and is influenced by the social context (Walsham, 1995)."

(Bruce H. Rowlands, 2005)

ISSN 1477–7029 81 ©Academic Conferences Ltd Reference this paper as: Rowlands B (2005) 'Grounded in Practice: Using Interpretive Research to Build Theory' The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methodology Volume 3 Issue 1, pp 81–92, available online at

Klein, H., & Myers, M., (1999), 'A Set of Principals for Conducting and Evaluating Interpretive Field Studies in Information Systems', MIS Quarterly, Vol 23, No 1, pp 67–94.

Walsham, G., (1995), 'Interpretive Case Studies in IS Research: Nature and Method', European Journal of Information Systems, Vol 4. No 2, pp.74–81.



Simon Perkins
14 JANUARY 2010

Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't

"Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. Without clinical expertise, practice risks becoming tyrannised by evidence, for even excellent external evidence may be inapplicable to or inappropriate for an individual patient. Without current best evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of patients."

(Sackett et al. 312 (7023): 71 –– BMJ)


action learningapplications • clinical expertise • conceptualisationcritical theorydiscoveryenquiryevidence • evidence-based medicine • experiencemethodologypracticeresearch


Robin Johnson

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