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20 MARCH 2011

General Practice Notebook: an online medical encyclopaedia

"GPnotebook is a concise synopsis of the entire field of clinical medicine focussed on the needs of the General Practitioner.

The database is continually being updated by a team of authors. We take a pragmatic approach to authoring: we look out for topical issues, keep track of the journals and update material in response to user feedback.

We use a range of knowledge sources, including clinical experience, knowledge taken from literature reviews, original research articles and guidelines published by national and international bodies. In many cases references are made to sources of information; we are committed to making GPnotebook fully referenced in the near future. As a team we review each other's work but we also rely in the feedback from experts in primary care and the various clinical specialities to keep us on the right track.

Our editorial decisions are based on merit and are not influenced by any funding bodies.

We make every effort to ensure that the contents of the site are correct however we cannot be held responsible for any errors or ommissions."

(Oxbridge Solutions Ltd., UK)


body • clinical • clinical medicinedatabasediagnosisdiseasedoctorencyclopaediaexpert knowledge • general practitioner • GP • GP Notebook • guidelineshealthhuman patientsillnessinformationinjuryknowledge baseknowledge repositorymedicalmedical practice • medical reference • medical researchnotebook • online encyclopaedia • operationpainpractitioner • prevention • primary care • prognosis • public healthreferencerepositoryresearch findingssearchsearch enginesexual healthsufferingtherapytreatmentUK


Simon Perkins
04 JULY 2009

Communicating the Modern Body: Fritz Kahn's Popular Images of Human Physiology as an Industrialized World

"The visualization of the human body has always been a highly popular affair, and popular science writing has been particularly perceptive as to how new media has revolutionized science. This article analyzes the intertwining of science, culture, and technology by investigating the lavishly illustrated publications of Fritz Kahn, arguably one of the most successful popular science writers internationally between 1920 and 1960. His illustrations developed a specific style of visualization that positioned the human body firmly in an industrial modernity of machine analogues, which he eventually copyrighted as a product line. This visual crossover between industrialization and science demonstrates surprisingly accurately how human nature becomes historically contingent and culturally encoded."
(Cornelius Borck, Canadian Journal of Communication. Vol 32, No 3. 2007)

2). Cornelius Borck (2007). "Communicating the Modern Body: Fritz Kahn's Popular Images of Human Physiology as an Industrialized World", Vol 32, No. 3, Canadian Journal of Communication.



Simon Perkins
23 MAY 2009

Phrenology: an early approach to anatomical science

"[Franz–Joseph Gall (1758–1828)], in his noted work, 'The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular', put forward the Gall, in his noted work, 'The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular', put forward the principles on which he based his doctrine of phrenology,.

Firstly, he believed that man's moral and intellectual faculties are innate and that their manifestation depends on the organization of the brain, which he considered to be the organ responsible for all the propensities, sentiments and faculties.

Secondly, Gall proposed that the brain is composed of many particular 'organs', each one of them related or responsible for a given mental faculty. He proposed also that the relative development of mental faculties in an individual would lead to a growth or larger development in the sub–organs responsible for them.

Finally, Gall proposed that the external form of the cranium reflects the internal form of the brain, and that the relative development of its organs caused changes of form in the skull, which could be used to diagnose the particular mental faculties of a given individual, by doing a proper analysis."
(Renato M.E. Sabbatini)



anatomybiological determinismbodybrain • cerebral localizationism • chartconceptualisationdiagnosis • Franz-Joseph Gall • medicalneuroscienceorgan • phrenology • physical representation • physiologyskull


Simon Perkins
10 MARCH 2009

Brought to Life: Exploring the History of Medicine

"The Science Museum of London is launching an ambitious and amazing sounding website this March [2009] entitled Brought to Life: Exploring the History of Medicine. The website will present images of, and details about, 2,500 fantastic objects illustrating centuries of medical history from around the world. Many of these objects have never been on public view; others are on display in the (wonderful) health and medicine galleries of the museum. The project is supported by the Wellcome Trust, and the website will feature access to items from the Wellcome Trust collection held by the Science Museum."
(Joanna Ebenstein, Morbid Anatomy)



Simon Perkins
08 OCTOBER 2003

Michel Foucault: Heterotopia

"The heterotopia is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible. [...] The garden is the smallest parcel of the world and then it is the totality of the world. The garden has been a sort of happy, universalizing heterotopia since the beginnings of antiquity (our modern zoological gardens spring from that source)"
(Michel Foucault)

This text, entitled 'Des Espace Autres,' and published by the French journal Architecture /Mouvement/ Continuité in October, 1984, was the basis of a lecture given by Michel Foucault in March 1967. Although not reviewed for publication by the author and thus not part of the official corpus of his work, the manuscript was released into the public domain for an exhibition in Berlin shortly before Michel Foucault's death. Translated from the French by Jay Miskowiec.

[A heterotopia in a medical context describes a situation where an organ's function is able to be re–inscribed. This may happen through relocation as in the case of skin grafts or re–purposed in the case of sex change operations. Foucault draws the distinction between utopias and heterotopia. According to him, utopias are abstracted perfected and fundamentally unreal spaces while heterotopia are places that simultaneously represent and contest all real sites that can be found within a culture.]

Fig. 1&2 Miraj Ahmed, Martin Jameson, Architectural Association Inc.




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