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Which clippings match 'Working Class' keyword pg.1 of 2
11 NOVEMBER 2016

Rap & Hip-Hop was born in 1973 at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue

"Hip-hop music is generally considered to have been pioneered in New York's South Bronx in 1973 by Jamaican-born Kool DJ Herc. At a Halloween dance party thrown by his younger sister, Herc used an innovative turntable technique to stretch a song's drum break by playing the break portion of two identical records consecutively. The popularity of the extended break lent its name to 'breakdancing'--a style specific to hip-hop culture, which was facilitated by extended drumbreaks played by DJs at New York dance parties. By the mid-1970s, New York's hip-hop scene was dominated by seminal turntablists DJ Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, and Herc. The rappers of Sugarhill Gang produced hip-hop's first commercially successful hit, 'Rapper's Delight,' in 1979'.

Rap itself--the rhymes spoken over hip-hop music--began as a commentary on the ability--or 'skillz'--of a particular DJ while that DJ was playing records at a hip-hop event. MCs, the forerunners of today's rap artists, introduced DJs and their songs and often recognized the presence of friends in the audience at hip-hop performances. Their role was carved out by popular African-American radio disc jockeys in New York during the latel96Os, who introduced songs and artists with spontaneous rhymes. The innovation of MCs caught the attention of hip-hop fans. Their rhymes lapped over from the transition period between the end of one song and the introduction of the next to the songs themselves. Their commentaries moved solely from a DJ's skillz to their own personal experiences and stories. The role of MCs in performances rose steadily, and they began to be recognized as artists in their own right [2].

The local popularity of the rhythmic music served by DJs at dance parties and clubs, combined with an increase in 'b-boys'--breakdancers--and graffiti artists and the growing importance of MCs, created a distinctive culture known as hip-hop. For the most part, hip-hop culture was defined and embraced by young, urban, working-class African-Americans. Hip-hop music originated from a combination of traditionally African-American forms of music--including jazz, soul, gospel, and reggae. It was created by working-class African-Americans, who, like Herc, took advantage of available tools--vinyl records and turntables--to invent a new form of music that both expressed and shaped the culture of black New York City youth in the 1970s."

(Becky Blanchard, 1999)

2). Information on MCs drawn from the University of Maryland's "Mcing: The Past" and "MCing: The Present" in "A Brief History of Hip-Hop Culture"

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1970s1973African AmericanAfrika Bambaataaappropriation • b-boys • b-girls • Becky Blanchard • black culture • block party • break dancing • breakbeat • breakdance • breakdancing • Cindy Campbell • civil rights movement • Clive Campbell • cultural expression • dance party • DJ • DJ Grandmaster Flash • DJing • extended break • gospel • graffiti art • graffiti artists • Grandmaster Flash • hip-hophip-hop backbeat • hip-hop culture • hip-hop music • hip-hop performance • hip-hop scene • jazz • Kool DJ Herc • l960s • MC • MCing • music history • musical form • New York City • radio disc jockey • rap • rap artist • rap music • rapperreggae • rhyme • rhythmic music • Sedgwick Avenue • skillz • soul • South Bronx • spoken word • Sugarhill Gang • turntable • turntable technique • turntablist • vinyl record • West Bronx • working classworking class cultureyouth culture

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 JANUARY 2015

Melbourne youth subculture: before punk there were Sharpies

"An extension of the UK skinhead movement, the roots of sharp lie in the influx of European immigrants in Australia in the early 1960s. By the late 1960s the Sharpie subculture had evolved and existed in the mainly working class and migrant inner city suburbs such as Richmond, Fitzroy, Collingwood and Brunswick where Greeks, Italians, Yogoslavs and English immigrants all lived side by side. But as street corners gradually changed to shopping centres, by the early 1970s, the Sharpie movement started to spread to the outer suburbs of Melbourne where a 'rough as guts' working class ethos existed.

The name 'Sharpie' originated from the fashion. It was all about the clothes and looking sharp, and flash. The first wave of Sharpies from 1966 – 1969 were strongly influenced by UK Mod fashions, the 1964 Rockers and the style of certain Italian migrants. Demeanor was tough, hair was short back and sides and clothing was custom made by European tailors, thus allowing for a blend of neo–thirties suave combined with a contemporary larrikin attitude. Dances were also a big part of the Sharpies social fabric, with bands such as Billy Thorpe & the Aztecs, Wild Cherries, Ray Brown & the Whispers, and Max Merritt & the Meteors being popular choices.

From 1970–1980, the second wave of Sharpies were following hard, tough rock'n'roll bands like Lobby Loyde and the Coloured Balls, Buster Brown, Rose Tattoo, The Angels and ACDC. Sharpies were now often congregating in large numbers, regularly attending live band concerts at town hall and high school dances as well as early discos. But due to their sheer numbers, Sharpies were often perceived as being untouchable by the police and were often associated with excessive violence, regularly taking part in fights."

(Melynda von Wayward)

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1960s1970s • ACDC (band) • Australiabelonging • Billy Thorpe and the Aztecs (band) • British Australian • Brunswick (Victoria) • Buster Brown (band) • Carol Jerrems • clothesclothing fashion • Collingwood (Victoria) • Coloured Balls (band) • counterculturecultural codescustom madedisaffected youth • disco • European immigrants • European style • excessive violence • Fitzroy (Victoria) • Greek Australian • Heidelberg Technical College • high school dance • identity performanceinner city • inner city suburbs • Italian Australian • Italian immigrant • larrikin • larrikin attitude • Lobby Loyde (band) • looking sharp • Max Merritt and the Meteors (band) • Melbourne • Melynda von Wayward • mod fashionmullet • outer suburbs • protopunk • punk rockpunk rock ethos • Ray Brown and the Whispers (band) • Richmond (Victoria) • rock n roll • rockers • Rose Tattoo (band) • rough as guts • sharpie movement • sharpie subculture • sharpies • shopping centre • sideburns • skinheadsocial fabricstyle • suave • subculture • The Angels (band) • town hallurban clothingVictoria (Australia) • Wild Cherries (band) • working classworking class culture • working class ethos • youth cultureyouth subculture • Yugoslav

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 NOVEMBER 2014

Exhibition about the use of self-education as an emancipation tactic

Exhibition: "Really Useful Knowledge", 29 October 2014 – 9 February 2015 / Sabatini Building, Floor 1, Museo Reina Sofía, Madrid.

"The notion of 'really useful knowledge' emerged at the beginning of the 19th century alongside the workers' awareness of the need for self–education. In the 1820s and 1830s, working class organisations in the UK introduced this phrase to describe a body of knowledge that encompassed various 'unpractical' disciplines such as politics, economy and philosophy, as opposed to the 'useful knowledge' proclaimed by business owners who had previously begun to invest more heavily in their companies' progress through financing workers' education in 'applicable' disciplines like engineering, physics, chemistry and mathematics. In this reference to the long–forgotten class struggles of early capitalism, the title of the exhibition suggests an inquiry into 'really useful knowledge' from a contemporary perspective.

The exhibition endeavours to position the notion of critical pedagogy as a crucial element in collective struggles, and explore the tension between individual and social emancipation through education with examples that are both historical and current, and their relation to organisational forms capable of leading unified resistance to the reproduction of capital. In doing so, the exhibition highlights the collective utilization of public resources, action and experiments, either forgotten or under threat of eradication, taking the museum as a pedagogical site devoted to the analysis of artistic forms interconnected with actual or desired social relations."

(Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía)

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19th century2014alternative educational models • authorised discourse • body of knowledgecapitalist structurescapitalist values • class struggles • collective action • collective struggles • critical pedagogy • early 19th century • early capitalism • early modern periodeducation and employmenteducation system • emancipation through education • everyday understanding • exhibition • folk knowledge • hegemonic discoursehegemony • historical models • inculcation of capitalist values • inculcation of values through education • individual emancipation • industrial educationindustrial model of educationknowledge is powerMadridMuseo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia • organisational forms • political actionpower and agencyproper • really useful knowledge • reproduction of capitalreproduction of social relations of production • self-education • social emancipation • social hierarchiessocial historytactical behaviour • unified resistance • unpractical disciplines • useful knowledge • workers education • working class • working class organisations

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
21 APRIL 2012

The Family: warts-and-all portrait of working-class 1970s Britain

"Modelled on the 13–part observational series, An American Family (US, d. Craig Gilbert, 1972), producer Paul Watson's 12–part The Family (BBC, 1974) is credited with creating the concept of the 'fly–on–the–wall' documentary in Britain. Regardless, Watson's cinema verité–style, warts–and–all portrait of the working–class Wilkins family certainly popularised an 'observational' style still seen as the defining characteristic of British documentary some twenty–five years later.

The Family follows the daily lives of Terry and Margaret Wilkins, their children and their partners, as they all struggle to live together in a small flat in Reading. The series sets out to reveal to viewers the reality of family life in Britain as never shown before. "No TV family ever has dirty pots and pans," says Margaret in episode one, and the Wilkins demonstrate a remarkable candour in their on–camera conversations with one another.

Watson and his small crew spent two months with the Wilkins prior to filming. After this the team filmed the family eighteen hours a day for three months. The result was an extraordinary portrait of family life: honest, hilarious and painful, an instant classic the impact and influence of which (on both fiction and non–fiction television) it would be difficult to overestimate.

The Family divided critics and viewers alike, and the Wilkins were villified by the tabloid press for all manner of imagined transgressions: their 'acting' for the camera or their 'real' behaviour in front of it, their use of bad language and public airing of previously taboo subjects. Watson explained that he "wanted to make a film about the kind of people who never got on to television," and clearly the sight of a powerful and opinionated woman like Margaret Wilkins, or the challenge of daughter Heather to the casual racism of 1970s middle–England, was shocking to a certain section of the British public (Mary Whitehouse was among those who called for the series to be banned, lest this 'representative' family be seen as a model to imitate)."

(Joe Sieder, BFI Screenonline)

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1970s1974 • acting for the camera • An American FamilyBBCBritainBritish documentary • candour • casual racismcinema veritecultural signalsdirect cinemadocumentaryfamilyfamily lifefly-on-the-wallFranc Roddam • honest • Margaret Wilkins • Mary Whitehouse • non-fiction televisionobservational seriesobservational style • on-camera conversations • Paul Watsonportraitportrait of a familyportrait of family life • Reading (city) • real behaviourreality television • small flat • social changesocial classsocial constructionismsocial realitysocial stratificationsocietysocio-economictaboo subjectstelevisiontelevision documentarytelevision series • Terry Wilkins • The FamilyThe Family (television)TVUK • warts-and-all • working class

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
03 FEBRUARY 2012

Die Antwoord: a provocative celebration of otherness

"If Die Antwoord are a joke, they're a painfully acute one. This over–the–top South African rap–rave trio, comprising rappers Ninja and Yolandi Visser and a hulking DJ called Hi–Tek, purport to represent 'zef', a strain of working–class/underclass Boer' culture that perhaps most closely equates to our own pejorative term 'chav'.

The band's co–founder and frontman, Watkin Tudor Jones, aka Ninja, has previously appeared in a host of similar conceptual art–rap projects and situationist pranks."

(Ian Gittins, 16 November 2010)

Fig.1 Die Antwoord "Zef Side"

Fig.2 Die Antwoord "I Fink U Freeky", Directed by Roger Ballen & NINJA, Director of Photography Melle Van Essen, Edited by Jannie Hondekom @ Left, Post Production by Blade.

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Afrikaner • art projectbandBoer • Boer culture • chav • counterculture • Die Antwoord • dirtyDJ • DJ Hi-Tek (Marius Bosch) • grungy • lowbrow • lower socioeconomic status • mulletmusic video • Ninja (Watkin Tudor Jones) • othernessover-the-top • pejorative • poor white people • prankprovocativerap • rap-rave • raveshocksituationist • slur • social classSouth Africa • South African • subculturetrio • underclass • Watkin Tudor Jones • white trash • working class • Yolandi Visser • zef

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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