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11 NOVEMBER 2008

Advertising and globalisation in India

"This study explores the profile of contemporary advertising in India in the wider context of trends in international advertising, the recent changes in Indian economy and society, and issues concerning the cultural impact of foreign advertising in India. Findings are complemented with a case study of outdoor advertising collected in two visits to India in 2000 and 2001. In the 1990s India has witnessed a massive expansion of advertising, and the advertising sector has quickly been taken over by foreign advertisers and agencies that are affiliated with foreign advertising agencies. The whole advertising sector demonstrates a remarkable degree of concentration. There has been a rapid expansion of the television and satellite television in the 1990s but print is still the dominant media. The profile of most advertised products is dominated by advertising for personal products. The strategies used in India have undergone significant change in recent years, and there has been increased customisation to the local culture alongside a major intensification of strategies aimed at targeting rural markets, to stimulate the purchase the products of foreign companies."
(Lynne Ciochetto, 2004)



2004advertisingbillboardbrandingcultural change • EASAS • economic expansion • economy • foreign advertising • globalisationIndiamarketoutdoor advertisingpost-colonialisation • rural markets • SASNET • satellite televisionSouth Asia • Swedish South Asian Studies Network • television


Simon Perkins
04 NOVEMBER 2008

What is Branding?

"A well–known brand is generally regarded as one that people will recognise, often even if they do not know about the company or its products/services. These are usually the businesses name or the name of a product, although it can also include the name of a feature or style of a product.

The overall 'branding' of a company or product can also stretch to a logo, symbol, or even design features (E.g.: Regularly used colours or layouts, such as red and white for Coca Cola.) that identify the company or its products/services.

For example:
The Nike brand name is known throughout the world, people can identify the name and logo even if they have never bought any of their products.

However, not only is the company name a brand, but the logo (The 'tick' symbol) is also a strong piece of branding in its own right. The majority of people that are aware of the company can also identify it (or its products) from this symbol alone.

The clothing and running shoe company Adidas is well known for using three stripes on its range of products. This design feature branding allows people to identify their products, even if the Adidas brand name and logo is not present.

How Can Branding Benefit My Business?

(i) Recognition and Loyalty

The main benefit of branding is that customers are much more likely to remember your business. A strong brand name and logo/image helps to keep your company image in the mind of your potential customers.

If your business sells products that are often bought on impulse, a customer recognising your brand could mean the difference between no–sale and a sale. Even if the customer was not aware that you sell a particular product, if they trust your brand, they are likely to trust you with unfamiliar products. If a customer is happy with your products or services, a brand helps to build customer loyalty across your business. "


[Originally sourced from this link, which is no longer active:]


brandbrandingdesignidentitymarketonline brandingvisual identity • what is branding


Amanpreet Budesha
29 DECEMBER 2003

Urban Theory: World Systems

"The idea of the world system arises out of neo–Marxist scholarship, particularly the work of Wallerstein [1,2,3]. For Wallerstein, the present world system emerged in the sixteenth century with the discovery by Europeans of the new world. This allowed the population of the European world to expand beyond its carrying capacity through importing resources to supplement those within the existing nations. This set in train a system of dependency and exploitation that led to the colonial expansion and the system of markets and dependencies shaping the world into 'core', semi–peripheral and peripheral nations. The core nations initially dominant were the maritime and later industrial powers of Europe; Britain, the Netherlands, Spain and France. The system was initally built around trade, within which the European powers explored and obtained commodities for sale in Europe. These included spices, silks, and new foods. The dominance of the core was secured through their wealth and their military and naval capacities. With the discovery of new worlds, migration then settlement occurred, firstly, of the Americas and later of Southern Africa and Australia and New Zealand. One of the consequences of this migration was to create what some have called dominion capitalist societies [4]. What characterised this group of countries was their dependency on land–based production. The beef ranches of Argentina and the sheep farms of Australia and New Zealand played a significant role in the chain of food production for the industrialising populations of Europe. A consequence of this particular pattern of production and its orientation to exporting has been a different pattern of urbanisation with cities being built on the coast and serving as entrepôt, transportation and service centres rather than bases for industrial production and attractors of rural domestic populations [5,6,7,8]. In New Zealand, for example, it was not until the post–second–world–war period that the indigenous population shifted from being rural to urban based. In 1945, the distribution was 74 per cent rural and 26 per cent urban. By 1971, this had reversed to 71 per cent urban and 29 per cent rural [9]."

(David C. Thorns, 2002, p. 81)

David C. Thorns (2002). "The Transformation of Cities", Palgrave Macmillan.

[1] Wallerstein, I.M. 1974. The Modern World–System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.
[2] Wallerstein, I.M. 1979. The Capitalist World Economy: Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[3] Wallerstein, I.M. 2000. 'Globalisation or the Age of Transition? A Long–Term View of the Trajectory of the World System'. International Sociology 15, 249–65.
[4] Armstrong, W. 1980. 'Land, Class, Colonialism: The Origins of Dominion Capitalism'. In New Zealand and the World (ed.) W.E. Willmott. Christchurch: University of Canterbury
[5] Mullins, P. 1981. 'Theoretical Perspectives on Australian Urbanisation: Material Components in the Reproduction of Australian Labour Power: Australian and New Zealand journal of Sociology 17, 56–76.
[6] Berry, M. 1983, 'The Australian City in History: Critique and Renewal'. Urban Political Economy: The Australian Case (eds) L. Sandercock and M. Berry. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.
[7] Berry, M. 1984. 'Urbanisation and Accumulation: Australia's First Long Bom Revisited'. Conflict and Development (ed.) P. Williams. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.
[8] Denoon, D. 1983. Settler Capitalism: The Dynamics of Dependent Development in the Southern Hemisphere. Oxford: Pergamon.
[9] Thorns, D. and C. Sedgwick. 1997. Understanding Aotearoa. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.



Aotearoa New ZealandArgentinaAustraliacapitalismcolonialismcommodityCommonwealthDavid C. Thornsdominion • entrepot • EuropeanexploitationFranceglobalisationIndigenousMaorimarketmigrationnationneo-MarxistNetherlands • peripheral • powerproductionruralsettlementSouth AfricaSpaintradetrajectorytransportationurbanisation • Wallerstein
21 DECEMBER 2003

Information is a commodity and is properly controlled by market forces?

"We are now being convinced that 'information' is first a commodity and second that it is properly controlled by market forces. Capitalist economics assumes that resources are scarce and therefore that their allocation is best determined by market mechanisms. Yet information is not scarce but plentiful and cheap. In the mode of information the market inverts itself: by restricting the flow of information it produces the scarcity that economists tell us is a fact of nature.The problem is that information is too easily reproduced. Until now commodities were difficult to reproduce. A complex combination of materials and skills were required to make almost everything. Producer and consumer were separated by the process of production. Clothing, appliances, furniture – few consumers imagined they could provide these for themselves.' Books, music and film were no different. Consumers paid for the manufacture of the book, not for the information in it which was available at no cost in public libraries. The same was true for phonogaph recordings: the black disc was the commodity for which one paid, not the tune it contained which could be sung by anyone. Information was inseparable from the 'packages' in which it was delivered and the package had a price tag. The new technologies for reproducing information have changed all of that: photocopying devices, audio and video recorders, computer disk drives, and satellite receivers make every consumer into a producer. Anyone can reproduce information in a package that is equal to and in some cases better than the commercial package."

(Mark Poster)

Poster, Mark. 1990 The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. 0226675963

Fig.1 Marshall, Rob (2005). Plastic Flower. , : Rob Marshall



commoditycopycopyright • economies of digital objects • informationMark Postermarketpiracyreproductionscarcity

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