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Which clippings match 'Jean-Francois Lyotard' keyword pg.1 of 2
07 MAY 2011

Performativity involves a system logic that reduces questions of justice to questions of efficiency and has no interest in the unknown

"For Lyotard, performativity involves a system logic that reduces questions of justice to questions of efficiency and has no interest in the unknown because it falls outside the system as currently constituted. Against this he 'sketches the outline of a politics that would respect both the desire for justice and the desire for the unknown' (1984: 67). This involves turning away from performativity and towards the other possible legitimating criteria, consensus and paralogy. Lyotard argues that consensus, the criteria preferred by Habermas, is inadequate (1984: 60). It rests on a belief that it is possible to find a metalanguage that could translate all of the 'heteromorphous classes of utterance' into one another, and the assumption that it is possible for all speakers in scientific games to agree about this meta–language and that consensus is the goal of science (1984: 65). Against this, Lyotard argues that 'consensus is only a particular state of discussion, not its end. Its end, on the contrary is paralogy' (1984: 65–6)."

(Campbell Jones, p.512)

Campbell Jones (2003). "Theory after the Postmodern Condition." Organization 10(3): 503–525.

Jean–François Lyotard (1984). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Fig.1 China's Pang Qing and Tong Jian perform in the pairs short programme during the Cup of China figure skating competition in Beijing November 5. (AP Photo/Alexander F. Yuan)



consensus • criteria • discussionefficiency • heteromorphous classes of utterance • Jean-Francois LyotardJurgen Habermaslegitimating criterialegitimationlogic • meta-language • metalanguage • metanarrativeparalogyperformativityPostmodern • scientific games • scientific goalsstateThe Postmodern Conditionunknown


Simon Perkins
18 FEBRUARY 2011

The evolution of Postmodernism

"On the way to postmodern, the struggle to reform modern capitalism's dark side, fragmented into a thousand strands. An era approach is rejected – dating the arrival of postmodernism is impossible as is the construction of a linear episodic narrative, moving from the premodern to the modern and then to postmodern. Instead postmodern methods, theories, and worldviews proliferate, as do modern and premodern ones. There are numerous postmodern approaches ranging from naive postmodernism (McPostmodernism) that hails the arrival of postindustrial and complex/adaptive organizations, Baudrillard's and Lyotard's versions of radical breaks from modernity, to others seeking more integration with critical theory. Some claim to have moved beyond postmodern to something called postpostmodern that would include hybrids (postmodern variants with modern and premodern), language 'heteroglossia' (the coexistence of many voices at the same time in tension with each other), and various 'dark side postmoderns' looking at global reterritorialization, postmodern war, postcolonialism and the ills of capitalism"

(David M. Boje, 2007)

1). Postmodernism – by David M. Boje (2007) To appear in Yiannis Gabriel's Thesaurus, London: Oxford University Press, forthcoming


Bruno Latourcapitalismconsumption spectaclecritical theorycritiquedeconstruction • Douglas Kellner • episodic narrative • Fredric Jameson • Gibson Burrell • grand narrativesGulf WarGuy Debordheteroglossia • history of philosophy • iPodJacques DerridaJean BaudrillardJean-Francois LyotardJurgen HabermaslanguageLas Vegas • Linda Smircich • Marta B Calas • McDonalds • McPostmodernism • Michel FoucaultmodernismmodernityNietzscheNikePeter Druckerpost-structuralismpostindustrialPostmodernpostmodernismpremodernreterritorialisation • Steven Best • Stewart R. Clegg • Vietnam war • Wal-Mart • William Bergquist • World War IWorld War II


Simon Perkins
20 OCTOBER 2009

Knowledge is not something one accumulates but is instead something one uses to create new ideas

"inquiry informed by postmodern critique places emphasis on allowing intellect very broad prerogative to determine the directions that inquiry may go, rather than on maintaining a line of inquiry that is consistent with ends or objectives that are determined in advance of the activity. From the standpoint of the individual who seeks knowledge, the emphasis is on the idea that one is an inquirer before one is a knower. Knowledge is not something one accumulates but is instead something one uses to create new ideas. Lyotard's idea of knowledge as 'pragmatic,' diverse competencies also supports this idea of inquiry, since it emphasizes intellectual agility, or skill at adapting to new contexts. It also suggests that a good inquirer cultivates the ability to recognize when opportunities for new paths become possible and to alter the course of inquiry in ways that create such opportunities.

This kind of inquiry would be experimental rather than innovative; the latter is 'but a way of repeating, without great difference, something that already has been done and that has worked' (Lyotard, p.14, p.61) . For Lyotard, an experiment is an imaginative revision of received knowledge, a new move in a language game in which one is always an addressee before one is a sender. Further, the inquirer seeks to come 'to grips with the new effects produced by the new situation of a joint discussion' (Ibid., p.60, p.6). The inquirer participates in dialogue with the understand that the obligation to be a good listener precedes the freedom to experiment (Ibid., p.66.). Inquiry is, the, both an experimental and participatory act."

(Roger Philip Mourad, 1997, p.34)

Roger Philip Mourad (1997). 'Postmodern Philosophical Critique and the Pursuit of Knowledge in Higher Education'. Westport, Bergin and Garvey.

Jean–François Lyotard and Jean–Loup Thébaud (1985). 'Just Gaming', University of Minnesota Press.


1979conceptualisationconstellationscritiquediscoveryenquiryexperimental enquiryexperimental knowledgeexperimentation • exploiting new opportunities • ideasinnovationinsight • intellectual agility • Jean-Francois Lyotard • Jean-Loup Thebaud • Just Gaming • knowledgelanguage gamespostmodern critiquepostmodernismRoger Mouradtheory building


Simon Perkins
19 OCTOBER 2008

Jean-François Lyotard: Legitimation of knowledge by performativity terrorises the production of ideas

"Lyotard argues that legitimation by performativity is against the interests of research. He does not claim that research should be aimed at production of 'the truth'; he does not try to re–invoke the metanarratives of modernity to legitimate research. Rather, he sees the role of research as the production of ideas. Legitimation of knowledge by performativity terrorises the production of ideas. What, then, is the alternative? Lyotard proposes that a better form of legitimation would be legitimation by paralogy. The etymology of this word resides in the Greek words para – beside, past, beyond – and logos in its sense as 'reason.' Thus paralogy is the movement beyond or against reason. Lyotard sees reason not as a universal and immutable human faculty or principle but as a specific and variable human production; 'paralogy' for him means the movement against an established way of reasoning. In relation to research, this means the production of new ideas by going against or outside of established norms, of making new moves in language games, changing the rules of language games and inventing new games. Lyotard argues that this is in fact what takes place in scientific research, despite the imposition of the performativity criterion of legitimation. This is particularly evident in what Lyotard calls 'postmodern science' – the search for instabilities. For Lyotard, knowledge is not only the known but also the 'revelation' or 'articulation' of the unknown. Thus he advocates the legitimation of knowledge by paralogy as a form of legitimation that would satisfy both the desire for justice and the desire for the unknown."

(Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy)


Simon Perkins
10 APRIL 2007

Regionalisation: Educational Reform In New Zealand

Peter Roberts (School of Education, University of Auckland, NZ)
Teachers, Boards of Trustees and tertiary administrators have been held accountable for decisions relating to the day–to–day running of educational establishments, yet the parameters for undertaking these duties have been defined elsewhere. The market has been the seen as the ideal model on which to base educational arrangements. Competition between students, staff and institutions has been encouraged. Students have been redefined as 'consumers', and tertiary education institutions have become 'providers'. Bureaucrats now talk of 'inputs', 'outputs' and 'throughputs' in the education system. Any notion of educational processes serving a form of collective public good has all but disappeared; instead, participation in tertiary education is now regarded as a form of private investment.



accountable • Aotearoa New ZealandcompetitioneducationJean-Francois Lyotardneoliberalism • postmodern condition • reform • Roberts • teacher • tertiary • university

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