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13 OCTOBER 2017

Style: An Introduction to History, Theory, Research, and Pedagogy

"Style: An Introduction to History, Theory, Research, and Pedagogy conducts an in-depth investigation into the long and complex evolution of style in the study of rhetoric and writing. The theories, research methods, and pedagogies covered here offer a conception of style as more than decoration or correctness—views that are still prevalent in many college settings as well as in public discourse. The book begins by tracing origins of style in sophistic-era Greece, moving from there to alternative and non-Western rhetorical traditions, showing style as always inventive and even at times subversive. Although devalued in subsequent periods, including the twentieth century, contemporary views now urge for renewed attention to the scholarly and pedagogical possibilities of style as experimentation and risk, rather than as safety and conformity. These contemporary views include work in areas of rhetoric and composition, such as basic writing, language difference, digital and multimodal discourse, feminist rhetorics, and rhetorical grammar. Later chapters in this book also explore a variety of disciplines and research methods—sociolinguistics and dialectology, literary and rhetorical stylistics, discourse and conversation analysis, and World Englishes. Finally, teachers and students will appreciate a final chapter that explains practical teaching methods, provides ideas for assignments and activities, and surveys textbooks that promote a rhetorical stance toward style."

(Brian Ray, 2015)

Ray, B. (2015). Style: An Introduction to History, Theory, Research, and Pedagogy, Parlor Press.

TAGS

2015 • American stylistics • analysing style • basic writing • Brian Ray • Chris Holcomb • Classical rhetoric • composition analysis • content analysis • conversation analysis • cultural forms • dialectology • digital discourse • digital rhetoric • discourse analysis • discourse and conversation analysis • Elizabeth Closs Traugott • European stylistics • feminist rhetorics • Gayatri Spivak • genre analysis • H G Widdoseon • Jeanne Fahnestock • Jimmie Killingsworth • Judith Butler • language difference • language patterns • linguistic criticism • linguistics • literary and rhetorical stylistics • literature • Mary Louise Pratt • multimodal discourse • non-Western rhetorical traditions • Patricia Sullivan • patterns of language • Paul Butler • practical stylistics • public discourse • research methods • rhetoric analysis • rhetoric and writing • rhetorical analysis • rhetorical grammar • rhetorical stance • ritualisations of language • Roger Fowler • Ronald Carter • Sara Mill • social discourse • sociolinguistics • sociolinguists • sophistic-era Greece • stylistic analysis • stylistics • Susan Peck MacDonald • T R Johnson • Tara Lockhart • Terry Eagleton • thematic analysis • Tom Pace • Walter Nash • World Englishes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 SEPTEMBER 2016

George Lakoff: Idea Framing, Metaphors, and Your Brain

UC Berkeley Professor George Lakoff discusses concepts from his 2008 book, The Political Mind: Why You Can't Understand 21st-Century American Politics with an 18th-Century Brain.

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2008brain networks • breaking the frame • Charles Fillmore • cognitive linguistics • cognitive strategy • Commonwealth Club of California • conceptual framing • cultural narratives • embodied mind • Erving Goffman • fora.tv • frame analysis • frame elements • framingGeorge Lakoff • human thinking • idea framing • institutions • Jerry Feldman • Joe Epstein • linguistic construction • linguisticsmetaphormetaphor analysis • metaphors are political • metaphors structure our thinking • mutual inhibition • neural circuit • neural computation • political behaviour • political behaviour and society • primary metaphor • Rockridge Institute • roles • scenarios • structured frames • the way we think • thinking in terms of metaphors

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 FEBRUARY 2016

Grammar comes to students as an abstract whole

"The Reed-Kellogg diagram is a tool of the classroom and of the textbooks that codify the rules for its production. But grammar textbooks share a problem similar to the one Thomas Kuhn noted for science textbooks: they tend to efface the history of their subject. Indeed, grammar textbooks are far more ahistorical that science textbooks. The average science textbook will contain some history, however Whiggish. There will be at least a cursory mention of the scientists who formulated the theories under discussion, some suggestion that scientific knowledge is subject to change and accretion. Grammar, however, comes to students as an abstract whole. The sources from which the textbook authors derived their accounts normally go unacknowledged. There is no sense of grammar as a theory—or, more precisely, a constellation of competing theories—with its own intellectual history."

(Karl Hagen, 17 October 2015)

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19th century • a constellation of competing theories • abstract whole • ahistorical • Alonzo Reed • analytic grammar • Brainerd Kellogg • change and accretion • diagram • diagramming • diagramming sentences • education • English grammar • etymological parsing • Goold Brown • grammar • grammar as a theory • grammar textbooks • grammarians • grammatical concepts • grammatical pedagogy • grammatical principles • grammatical ruleshigh schoolhistory of ideas and learningintellectual history • Kitty Burns Florey • Lindley Murray • linguistics • morphosyntax • North America • oral parsing • pedagogical method • Reed-Kellog Diagram • Richard Brittain • Robert Lowth • rote recitation • Samuel Kirkham • schoolbook • sentence • sentence diagram • sentence diagramming • sentence structure • symbolic illustration • syntaxsystematic approach • systematic scheme • teaching grammar • textbooksThomas Kuhn • transformational-generative syntax • tree diagram • visual depictions • visual learningvisualisation • Whiggishness

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 OCTOBER 2015

Social media platform affordances promote phatic communication

"Facebook, for example, encourages phatic communication through sociable add-ons like 'vampire bites', 'zombies', 'hot potatoes' and automating messages encouraging participation between friends in quizzes, film taste reviews and the like.[6] Furthermore, Facebook's new 'beacon' technology creates an environment where one's online purchases and interests get relayed to one's network of friends through automated communication. Twitter encourages phatic communication through the imposed limits of the medium itself. The 160 character limit for messages creates brevity in communication. The lack of a private messaging facility, promotes generic 'announcements' over dialogue or targeted conversation. "

(Vincent Miller, 2008, p.398)

[6] For example, a typical automated message such as ''Mr X' has challenged you to a movie quiz' suggests a personal invitation to compete. However, it is usually the case that if 'Mr X' has participated in a movie quiz, you will, by default, be automatically 'challenged' to the quiz, by virtue of being friends with 'Mr X'.

Miller, V. (2008). "New Media, Networking and Phatic Culture." Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14(4): 387–400.

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2008 • activity patterns • announcements • automated communication • automated messagesbrevitycharacter limitconstant connection • conversation for its own sake • Facebookfriendship networks • generic announcements • grooming talking • hot potatoe • I share therefore I am • imposed limits • linguisticsmedium limitationonline activitiesonline followersperformativitypersonal interests • phatic communication • phatic communion • phatic expression • phatic speech • relationship communication • self-disclosureshare your interestssharing personal informationsharing platformshow and tellsmall talk • sociable add-on • social groomingsocial practices • social task • spectacular society • speech act • status updatethe mediumTwitterutterances • vampire bite • Vincent Miller • zombie

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
07 JUNE 2015

Ferdinand de Saussure: Place of Language in the Facts of Speech

"In order to separate from the whole of speech the part that belongs to language, we must examine the individual act from which the speaking-circuit can be reconstructed. The act requires the presence of at least two persons; that is the minimum number necessary to complete the circuit. Suppose that two people, A and B, are conversing with each other [see figure 1 below].

Suppose that the opening of the circuit is in A's brain, where mental facts (concepts) are associated with representations of the linguistic sounds (sound-images) that are used for their expression. A given concept unlocks a corresponding sound-image in the brain; this purely psychological phenomenon is followed in turn by a physiological process: the brain transmits an impulse corresponding to the image to the organs used in producing sounds. Then the sound waves travel from the mouth of A to the ear of B: a purely physical process. Next, the circuit continues in B, but the order is reversed: from the ear to the brain, the physiological transmission of the sound-image; in the brain, the psychological association of the image with the corresponding concept. If B then speaks, the new act will follow-from his brain to A's-exactly the same course as the first act and pass through the same successive phases, which I shall diagram as follows [see figure 2 below].

The preceding analysis does not purport to be complete. We might also single out the pure acoustical sensation, the identification of that sensation with the latent sound-image, the muscular image of phonation, etc. I have included only the elements thought to be essential, but the drawing brings out at a glance the distinction between the physical (sound waves), physiological (phonation and audition), and psychological parts (word-images and concepts). Indeed, we should not fail to note that the word-image stands apart from the sound itself and that it is just as psychological as the concept which is associated with it. "

(Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger, Wade Baskin, p.11, 12)

Ferdinand de Saussure, Charles Bally, Albert Sechehaye, Albert Riedlinger, Wade Baskin (1966). "Course in General Linguistics", McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York Toronto London.

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TAGS

1966 • acoustical sensation • Albert Riedlinger • Albert Sechehaye • audition (linguistics) • audition phonation circuit • brain • Charles Bally • circuitcommunication processcommunication theory • Course in General Linguistics (1966) • dialogic • ear • Ferdinand de Saussurehuman expressionimagelanguagelinguistic philosophy • linguistic sounds • linguistics • mental facts (concepts) • messagemodel of communicationmouth • muscular image of phonation • phonation (linguistics) • phonation and audition • physiological process • physiological transmission • psychological association • psychological phenomenon • sound waves • sound-image • speaking-circuit • speechtheory of communication • Wade Baskin • word-image

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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