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Which clippings match 'Liminal' keyword pg.1 of 1
23 DECEMBER 2014

The virtual is a liminal space that consists only of its becomingness-state

"One of the simplest ways to conceptualize the becomingness of liminal space in media is to think of the virtual. In his essay 'The Reality of the Virtual,' Slavoj Žižek addresses Gilles Deleuze's notion of the virtual as 'pure becoming without being,' which is ''always forthcoming an already past,'' but is never present or corporeal.[7] The virtual is a liminal space that consists only of its becomingness–state, and not an actual being or object to become. It exists as pure becoming that suspends both 'sequentiality and directionality'; it is a passage, but there is no line of passage.[8]"

(Allison Wright, The Chicago School of Media Theory)



2004becoming • becoming without being • becomingness • beliefbelief systemsbeliefs • Ben Wright • democracydocumentary filmFather ChristmasGilles DeleuzeJacques Lacanliminalliminal spaceliminalitymedia theorypoliticspopular culture • post-political era • psychoanalysisSlavoj Zizek • Slovenian philosopher • sociology • universal truth • universalisingvideo lecturevirtual reality


Simon Perkins
22 FEBRUARY 2009

The Significance of the Frontier in American History

"American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character. The true point of view in the history of this nation is not the Atlantic Coast, it is the Great West. Even the slavery struggle, which is made so exclusive an object of attention by writers like Professor von Holst, occupies its important place in American history because of its relation to westward expansion.

In this advance, the frontier is the outer edge of the wave –– the meeting point between savagery and civilization. Much has been written about the frontier from the point of view of border warfare and the chase, but as a field for the serious study of the economist and the historian it has been neglected.

What is the frontier? It is not the European frontier –– a fortified boundary line running through dense populations. The most significant thing about it is that it lies at the hither edge of free land. In the census reports it is treated as the margin of that settlement which has a density of two or more to the square mile. The term is an elastic one, and for our purposes does not need sharp definition. We shall consider the whole frontier belt, including the Indian country and the outer margin of the 'settled area' of the census reports. This paper will make no attempt to treat the subject exhaustively; its aim is simply to call attention to the frontier as a fertile field for investigation, and to suggest some of the problems which arise in connection with it.

In the settlement of America we have to observe how European life entered the continent, and how America modified and developed that life and reacted on Europe. Our early history is the study of European germs developing in an American environment. Too exclusive attention has been paid by institutional students to the Germanic origins, too little to the American factors.

Now, the frontier is the line of most rapid and effective Americanization. The wilderness masters the colonist. It finds him a European in dress, industries, tools, modes of travel, and thought. It takes him from the railroad car and puts him in the birch canoe. It strips off the garments of civilization and arrays him in the hunting shirt and the moccasin. It puts him in the log cabin of the Cherokee and Iroquois and runs an Indian palisade around him. Before long he has gone to planting Indian corn and plowing with a sharp stick; he shouts the war cry and takes the scalp in orthodox Indian fashion. In short, at the frontier the environment is at first too strong for the man. He must accept the conditions which it furnishes or perish, and so he fits himself into the Indian clearings and follows the Indian trails."
(Frederick Jackson Turner, 1893)



1893 • Americanization • becoming • Cherokee • civilization • colonisationconflictdemocracydivine destinydivine providence • expansion • expansionism • Frederick Jackson Turner • frontierfrontier mythideologyIndigenousIroquoisliminalmanifest destinymoral dignityNative Americans • personal enfranchisement • political ideologyprovidenceromantic sublimesettlementterritoryThe WestWesternwilderness


Simon Perkins
03 MAY 2005

The Backpacker: A Liminal Experience

"The backpacker experience is usually characterized as a self imposed transition or rite of passage from adolescence to adulthood, and occurs in the time between the end of formal education and the beginning of full time employment. In the case of more mature backpackers, the experience commonly occurs in other transition periods during life course such as marriage breakdown, 'mid–life' crisis or career transition. Either way the experience is a liminal one, forming a transitional experience between the end of one part of life and the beginning of another. This liminality also suggests a disconnection from conventional principles of experience within the bounds of everyday life, which make certain behaviours like risk–taking, uncertainty and adventure available to the backpacker more so than other tourist groups."
(Dr Barbara Adkins & Eryn Grant)

[2] Adkins, Barbara A. and Grant, Eryn L. (2007) Backpackers as a community of strangers: the interaction order of an online backpacker notice board. Qualitative Sociology Review, 3(2).



2007adventure • backpacker • Barbara Adkinscosmopolitanism • Eryn Grant • experienceICTin-between • interaction order • liminalliminal experienceliminalitynew cosmopolitanismrisk-takingrites of passagetourismtransition


Barbara Adkins

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