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Which clippings match 'Assumptions' keyword pg.1 of 1
30 SEPTEMBER 2014

The now discredited hypodermic needle model of communication

"The Hypodermic Needle Theory is a linear communication theory which suggests that media messages are injected directly into the brains of a passive audience. It suggests that we're all the same and we all respond to media messages in the same way.

This way of thinking about communication and media influence is no longer really accepted. In the 1930s, many researchers realized the limitations of this idea and some dispute whether early media theorists gave the idea any serious attention at all. Nevertheless, The Hypodermic Needle Theory continues to influence the way we talk about the media. People believe that the mass media has a powerful effect. Parents worry about the influence of television and violent video games. News outlets run headlines like 'Is Google making us stupid' and 'Grand Theft Auto led teen to kill'."

(Brett Lamb, 12 April 2013)

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TAGS

1930sArthur Bergerassumptions • attitudinal attributes • behaviour systemsbehaviourism • Bernard Berelson • biologically based theory • communication theoryconceptual model • David Croteau • Dennis Davis • discredited theory • Elihu Katz • Hadley Cantril • Hazel Gaudet • Herta Herzog • human instinct • human nature • hypodermic needle model • hypodermic needle theory • hypodermic-syringe model • infusion • injection • James Tankard • linear communication theory • magic bullet theory • mass communicationmedia • media gun • media influence • mental imagemessagemodel of communication • obsolete theory • passive audience • Paul Lazarsfeld • propaganda • shooting metaphor • sitting duck • situational attributes • Stanley Baran • theory of communication • transmission-belt model • unidirectional flow • uniformly controlled • Werner Severin • William Hoynes

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
28 APRIL 2013

Eurocentrism permeates our common cartographic representations

"on most maps, Europe and North America are situated on top–allowing us to believe that these countries are really 'on top of the world'. Africa, Australia and South America are always situated at the bottom. Why never the other way around? Cartographers make assumptions about the world (North is assumed to be at the top) and these assumptions have become normalised and are viewed as 'common sense'.

But these politically embedded assumptions help to structure how we see the world and our place in it. Few of us ever stop to think about the politics of cartography and what it says about Western cultural and economic imperialism and domination. Few ever think how these unexamined assumptions structure the way we see ourselves, to what extent and on what basis we rate our own worth (or supposed, entirely imagined, lack thereof) or how it restricts our imagination and limits the ways in which we think it is possible to excel and thrive in this world."

(Pierre De Vos, 23 April 2013)

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TAGS

Africa • apolitical • assumptionsAustraliaBritish Librarycartographic metaphorcartographic representationscartographychartcultural artefactcultural hegemonycultural imperialism • economic imperialism • economic significance • Eurocentric legacy • Eurocentrism • Europegeopolitical mapgraphic representationhistorical maphistorical narrativeshow we see the worldinformation visualisationinterpretationmapsmetaphors of reality • neo-European • neutralnormalisation process • normalised • North America • Northern hemisphere • objective perspective • our place in the world • physical geography • political assumptions • politics of cartographypost-colonialismpostcolonial • postcoloniality • reterritorialisationSouth AfricaSouth America • Southern hemisphere • standardised classification • The Lie of the Land (exhibition) • the worldthe world around us • top • understanding of the worldunexamined assumptions • visual critique • visual representationworld mapsworld politicsworld view

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
05 JANUARY 2013

Epistemological Positions in Design Research

"The significance of acknowledging the differences between the aspects of these epistemologies is twofold; first it connects the theory of research to the practice of research and reveals the limits of truth claims in terms of objectivity, validity and generalisability. Second, Crotty's model emphasizes the necessity of remaining epistemologically consistent. Objectivist research must distinguish scientifically established objective facts from people's everyday subjective meanings. In turn, consistently constructionist research must place all meanings, scientific and non–scientific on an equal basis – they are all constructions, and none is truly objective or generalisable [sic]. The further one moves towards subjectivism, the greater the limits of the objectivity, validity and generalisablity of one's truth claims (Seale 1999). Being epistemologically aware requires that at each point in the research process we recognize that we make a variety of assumptions about human knowledge, the realities encountered in the human world and the interpretability of our findings."

(Luke Feast and Gavin Melles, 2010)

Feast, L. and G. Melles (2010). "Epistemological Positions in Design Research: A Brief Review of the Literature". Connected 2010 – 2nd International Conference on Design Education Sydney, Australia, University of New South Wales.

"Point of View" by Christopher Hassler [http://500px.com/photo/6984247]

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2010academic communityassumptions • Charles Owen • Christopher Frayling • Clive Seale • constructionism • constructionist research • creative practice • Daniela Buchler • design educationdesign research • epistemological consistency • epistemological positions • epistemologies • epistemologyfindings • Fiona Candlin • Gavin Mellesgeneralisability • human knowledge • International Conference on Design Education • interpretability • Kees DorstKen Friedmanknowledge constructions • limits of objectivity • limits of truth claims • Luke Feast • Michael BiggsMichael CrottyNigel Cross • non-scientific meanings • objective • objectivist research • objectivity • practice of research • realitiesreview of literature • Roy Prentice • scholarly researchscientific methodscientifically established objective factssubjectivism • theory of research • truth claimsUniversity of New South Walesvalidity

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
02 DECEMBER 2012

University students face a constant stream of questionnaires designed to assess the standard of their courses

"I'm more bothered by the underlying assumptions about what makes good university teaching that lie behind many of these surveys. You can see them particularly clearly in the National Student Survey, and the reams of student feedback it publishes online – explicitly, so it says, to help prospective students choose a good course, and to help universities 'enhance the student learning experience'. ...

OK, I can see how at first sight that might seem obvious. Who, after all, wants to see their kids go off to university, at great expense, for a diet of dis–satisfaction? But, from where I sit, dissatisfaction and discomfort have their own, important, role to play in a good university education. We're aiming to push our students to think differently, to move out of their intellectual comfort zone, to read and discuss texts that are almost too hard for them to manage. It is, and it's meant to be, destabilizing.

At the same time, we're urging them never to be satisfied with the arguments they are presented with, never to take things on trust, always to challenge, always to see the weak points, or to want to push the argument further. Then along comes the National Survey, treats them as consumers, and asks them if they're satisfied."

(Mary Beard, BBC News, 2 December 2012)

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2012anonymityassumptionsbureaucratic reductionchallenging conventional thinkingcomfort zoneconsumer culturecriticismcustomer satisfactiondepersonalising • destabilizing • discontent • dissatisfactionHigher Education Funding Council • honesty • Mary Beard • National Student Surveyperformativitypower without responsibilityquestionnaire • RateMyProfessor • satisfaction • satisfied consumers • satisfied students • student feedback • student learning experience • suggestions • surveysurvey form • survey-fatigue • surveysteaching • think differently • TripAdvisor • trusttrust and reliabilityundergraduateuniversityuniversity educationuniversity teaching • useful comments

CONTRIBUTOR

Phil Nodding
21 OCTOBER 2011

Rien a Cacher Rien a Craindre

"As the first artists in residence at la Gaîté lyrique in Paris, UVA created Rien a Cacher / Rien a Craindre, a series of responsive light and sound installations that together seduced and unsettled visitors in a unique way.

Exploring the unexamined assumption that digital technology is moving us towards utopia, UVA created a visitor experience simultaneously celebrating and critiquing the brave new world of the digital.

Over 14.000 people saw the installation over six days from 1–6 March 2011."

(United Visual Artists)

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TAGS

2011artist in residenceassumptionsbrave new worlddigital technologydigital world • Gaite lyrique • installationlightlight artlight installationlight sculptureParisresponsive light installationresponsive sound installation • Rien a Cacher • Rien a Craindre • sound installationspectacleUnited Visual Artists • unsettling • utopia • UVA • visitor experience

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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