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18 SEPTEMBER 2016

The Metaphors That Research Students Live By

"In this paper I report a study of the ways in which research students think about their research. I took a unique approach by using metaphor analysis to study the students' conceptions. The research students in this study were recruited for an on - line survey at an Australian research - intensive university in which they answered questions relating to their conceptions of research. Five categories of metaphors for research were arrived at which I have labelled metaphors of space, metaphors of travel, metaphors of action, metaphors of the body and metaphors of ordeal. These metaphors provide useful information about the ways that the students visualise their research and their conceptions of what it entails."

(Rod Pitcher, 2013)

Pitcher, R. (2013). 'The Metaphors That Research Students Live By'. The Qualitative Report, 18(36), 1-8. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol18/iss36/3

TAGS

Angela Brew • Australian National University • Claire Gubbins • Daniel Andriessen • George Lakoff • Gerlese Akerlind • Mark Johnsonmetaphor analysis • Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) • metaphors of action • metaphors of ordeal • metaphors of space • metaphors of the body • metaphors of travel • metaphors structure our thinking • Pragglejaz Group • research metaphors • research students • Rod Pitcher • Rudolf Schmitt • systematic process • Thomas Steger

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
08 SEPTEMBER 2016

George Lakoff: Idea Framing, Metaphors, and Your Brain

UC Berkeley Professor George Lakoff discusses concepts from his 2008 book, The Political Mind: Why You Can't Understand 21st-Century American Politics with an 18th-Century Brain.

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TAGS

2008brain networks • breaking the frame • Charles Fillmore • cognitive linguistics • cognitive strategy • Commonwealth Club of California • conceptual framing • cultural narratives • embodied mind • Erving Goffman • fora.tv • frame analysis • frame elements • framingGeorge Lakoff • human thinking • idea framing • institutions • Jerry Feldman • Joe Epstein • linguistic construction • linguisticsmetaphormetaphor analysis • metaphors are political • metaphors structure our thinking • mutual inhibition • neural circuit • neural computation • political behaviour • political behaviour and society • primary metaphor • Rockridge Institute • roles • scenarios • structured frames • the way we think • thinking in terms of metaphors

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 MARCH 2015

Hugh Dubberly: Design the Future

"Hugh is the President of Dubberly Design and talented design planner and teacher. At Apple Computer in the late 80s and early 90s, Hugh managed cross-functional design teams and later managed creative services for the entire company. While at Apple, he co-created a technology-forecast film called 'Knowledge Navigator,' that presaged the appearance of the Internet in a portable digital device. While at Apple, he served at Art Center College of Design in Pasadena as the first and founding chairman of the computer graphics department.

Intrigued by what the publishing industry would look like on the Internet, he next became Director of Interface Design for Times Mirror. This led him to Netscape where he became Vice President of Design and managed groups responsible for the design, engineering, and production of Netscape's Web portal. Hugh graduated from Rhode Island School of Design with a BFA in graphic design and earned an MFA in graphic design from Yale.

This lecture was held on Wednesday, October 3, 2012 at 4:30pm in 1305 Newell Simon Hall."

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TAGS

2012 • age of biology • Apple Computer • Art Center College of Design in Pasadena • Austin Henderson • biological model • boundary objectsCarnegie Mellon Universitycommunication systemsconcept map • concept mapping • conceptual model • continuous change • creative servicescross-functional design teamsdata modelling • data models • design of the system rather than the object • design planner • design the futureDesign the Future Lecture ProgrammeDonald Norman • Dubberly Design • Fred Murrell • George Lakoffgraphic designer • HCII • Hugh Dubberlyinterface design • James Griesemer • Jay Doblin • John Rheinfrank • Kevin KellyKnowledge Navigator (1988)lingua franca • manufacturing age • mechanistic modelmetaphors of realityNetscape • networked-services ecology • org chart • Pasadena • portable digital device • Rhode Island School of Designservice design • service designer • Susan Leigh Star • system image • technology forecasting • Times Mirror • VisiCalc • whole systems

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
16 NOVEMBER 2014

In cognitive linguistics metaphors are not simply stylistic devices but processes which enable understanding through the mapping of source domains onto target domains

"The conception of metaphor in cognitive linguistics contradicts the conception of metaphor in literary studies in fundamental ways: Metaphor is not a stylistic device, but an experiential and cognitive process, in which we use properties, relations, and entities that characterize one domain of experience and/or knowledge (source domain) to understand, think, plan, and talk about a second domain (target domain) that is different in kind from the first. [7]

According to CMT [conceptual metaphor theory], source domains come from everyday bodily perception and movement. They are grounded in embodied experience (grounding hypothesis). Source domains are needed to make sense of target domains. By definition, a conceptual metaphor is a unidirectional mapping across cognitive domains. The mappings are tightly structured and structure from a source domain is (partially) mapped onto a target domain. The mapping is highly selective, as there are ontological correspondences according to which entities in the source domain (agents, objects, trajectories and so forth) systematically correspond to entities in the target domain. The point is, that we do not copy structure from SD [source domains] to TD [target domains], but we import whole sets of knowledge / inferences / entailments from the source domain into the target domain. The mapping does not work according to an arbitrary rule, but it is a tightly packed, highly selective and constrained process that allows us to reason about abstract domains. [7]"

(Alexandra Jandausch, 2012)

[7] Lakoff, George (1997): "Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind". Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jandausch, A. (2012). "Conceptual Metaphor Theory and the Conceptualization of Music". 5th International Conference of Students of Systematic Musicology. Montreal, Canada.

Fig.1. The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation, Passive Smoking: Shotgun [http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/the_roy_castle_lung_cancer_foundation_passive_smoking_shotgun].

[The source domain in the following image refers to the concept of a shotgun, which through its mapping onto the target domain of the cigarettes communicates the idea that smoking kills.]

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TAGS

2012 • abstract conceptual relations • Alexandra Jandausch • analogue correspondence • argument is war • automated metaphorical mappings • basic metaphor theory • bodily movement • bodily perception • cognitive domain • cognitive linguistics • cognitive process • conceptual correspondence • conceptual domainconceptual metaphor • conceptual metaphor theory • conceptualisation of music • cross-modal metaphor • domain of experience • domain of knowledge • embodied experience • experiential process • Friedemann Pulvermuller • George Lakoff • Gilles Fauconnier • grounding hypothesis • image schema theory • image schemas • inference • inference patterns • Jay Seitz • Jean Mandler • literary studies • love is a journey • mapping • mappings • Mark Johnson • Mark Turner • metaphor • metaphoric relations • Michael Tomasello • mnemonic • movement-movement metaphor • musicology • ontological correspondence • patterns of semantic change • perceptual-affective metaphor • perceptual-perceptual metaphor • polysemyrepresentational thinkingrepresentational thinking expressed in metaphors • systematic correspondence • target-domain as source-domain • target-domain is source-domain • theories are buildings • theory of music • unconscious metaphorical mappings • unidirectional mapping • University of Cologne • Vittorio Gallese

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
12 NOVEMBER 2014

Metaphors as Problem-solving Aids

"Metaphors facilitate the understanding of an unfamiliar situation in terms of a known situation (Ortony, 1991). By means of metaphors, it is possible to make reference to what is clearly understood in order to elucidate the unknown. Basically, metaphors constitute an uncommon juxtaposition of the familiar and the unusual. They induce the discovery of innovative associations that broaden the human capacity for interpretation (Lakoff, 1987, 1993). For that reason, metaphors are seen as valuable aids in problem–solving tasks.

The relevance of metaphors to problem–solving is pertinent to three fundamental steps (Gentner, Bowdle, Wolff, & Boronat, 2001). The first step consists of extracting a variety of unfamiliar concepts from remote domains, where possible relationships with the problem at hand are not always evident. The second step involves establishing a mapping of deep or high–level relationships between the metaphorical concept and the problem. Correspondences are identified by means of abstractions and generalizations. Relationships of secondary importance are discarded, and only structural correspondences between the metaphorical source and the problem are set up. The last step deals with transferring and applying structural correspondences associated with the metaphorical source to the problem at hand, which at the end generally leads to a novel solution."

(Hernan Pablo Casakin, 2007)

Hernan Pablo Casakin (2007). "Metaphors in Design Problem Solving: Implications for Creativity." International Journal of Design 1(2).

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TAGS

abstraction and generalisationaid to understanding • analogous correspondence • Andrew Ortony • Brian Bowdle • Consuelo Boronat • Dedre Gentner • George Lakoff • innovative associations • International Journal of Design • metaphorical concept • metaphorical representation • metaphorical source • novel solution • Phillip Wolff • problem abstraction • problem at hand • problem-solving • problem-solving aids • remote domains • structural correspondences • theory buildingthinking tools • uncommon juxtaposition • unfamiliar concepts • unifying metaphorunifying strategyvisual punvisual rhetoric

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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