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11 JULY 2013

Czech Film Posters of the 1960s

"The birth of the Czech creative film poster phenomenon in the early sixties can be credited to Karel Vaca, Karel Teissig, Richard Fremund, Vladimir Tesar, Jiri Balcar, Jaroslav Fiser, Zdenek Ziegler, Milan Grygar, Bedrich Dlouhy, Zdenek Palcr and others. In the late sixties and during the seventies they were joined by Josef Vyletal, Olga Polackova–Vyletalova, Jiri Rathousky, Alexej Jaros, Karel Machalek, Petr Pos, Jiri Salamoun, Vratislav Hlavaty, Zdenek Vlach and Antonin Sladek. In the streets, but soon also at film festival exhibitions, in art galleries and cinema premises, Czech film poster rapidly won the favor of the public for its creative imagination, poetic and lyrical atmosphere. It was characteristic by the use of collage, rollage, photomontage, retouching, striking graphic designs, wity typographic visual puns and surrealist dreamy interpretation. Mass reproductions of works of art flooded the billboards in towns and cities and changed them into sidewalk open air galleries. In the course of the 1960s, Czech film poster designers found inspiration in the informal style, applying its forms of structural abstraction and lettrism, later on in pop–art and op–art, using the then popular psychedelic forms and colors. Artists frequently employed styles inspired by the film forms, such as enlarged close–up, merging of symbolic and metaphoric visual levels and repeated details."

(Marta Sylvestrova, Museu de Arte de Macau)

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TAGS

1960s • Alexej Jaros • Andrzej Wajda • Antonin Sladek • artistic expression • Bedrich Dlouhy • collagecolour • cultural education • Czech film poster • Czech graphic design • Czech RepublicCzechoslovakiaexhibitionFederico Fellinifilm poster • film poster designer • graphic design • informal style • Ingmar Bergman • Jaroslav Fiser • Jiri Balcar • Jiri Rathousky • Jiri Salamoun • Josef Vyletal • Karel Machalek • Karel Teissig • Karel Vaca • lettrism • Luchino Visconti • Macau Museum of Art • mass reproduction • metaphoricmid-century design • Milan Grygar • Moravian Gallery in Brno • Museu de Arte de Macau • Olga Polackova-Vyletalova • op art • open air galleries • Paolo Pasolini • Petr Pos • photomontagepop art • psychedelic forms • psychedelic imagery • reproduction of illustrations • retouching • Richard Fremund • rollage • structural abstraction • surrealist inspiration • typographic poster • Vladimir Tesar • Vratislav Hlavaty • Zdenek Palcr • Zdenek Vlach • Zdenek Ziegler

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
31 MAY 2013

Yossarian Lives!: a Metaphorical Search Engine

"We have created a metaphorical search engine. Our search algorithms generate results that assist people in the creation of new knowledge by returning disparate, but potentially metaphorically related information. These are the types of insights that are valuable for people working at the edges of their knowledge field. This is an immensely powerful creative tool for use by anyone who is looking to generate new ideas or see their problem or topic in a whole new light.

Yossarian is the main character of Joseph Heller's novel 'Catch–22.' Our work is highlighting the Catch–22 of current search and personalization algorithms, in that their use both simultaneously helps us through access to existing knowledge, and hurts us through the reinforcement of that same knowledge. In finding new and innovative search solutions to this problem, we declare that Yossarian Lives!"

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TAGS

Catch-22 • conceptual metaphorconstellation of connectionsconstellations metaphor • creative search • disparatedivergent conceptsdivergent thinkingideas • innovative search solution • Joseph Heller • knowledge fieldmetaphormetaphoricmetaphoric reference • metaphorical • metaphorical search • metaphorical search engine • metaphorically • metaphorically related • metaphorics • personalisation algorithm • searchsearch algorithmsearch enginesearch servicesearch toolsimilitude • Yossarian Lives

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
19 JUNE 2011

A comparable dichotomy between metaphor and metonymy

"Roman Jakobson found a comparable dichotomy between metaphor and metonymy in his seminal paper, 'Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances,' published in his monograph, Fundamentals of Language (Mouton & Co––Gravenhage, 1956). Here Jakobson discussed two types of aphasia based on complementary disorders in comprehending language: (a) a similarity disorder whereby one primarily depends on syntactic context to draw words into use (pp. 63–64); and (b) a contiguity disorder whereby one's style becomes a telegraphic 'word heap' without much, if any, evidence of syntax (pp. 71–72). According to Jakobson, two faculties are thus involved in the use of language: (a) selection in the choice of words to express an idea (metaphoric); and (b) the combination of words, again to express an idea (metonymic). Elaborate sentences without a particularly impressive vocabulary (for example in the prose of Henry James) illustrates the similarity disorder, while big vocabulary in loosely constructed sentences (for example in the prose of James Joyce) illustrates the contiguity disorder. Joyce heaped together his words with apparent abandonment, while James strenuously belaboured his syntax to produce exactly the right effect––an effect he found difficult to articulate with words alone as opposed to their combination in intricate sentences. An inferior choice of words, Jakobson claimed, is at the sacrifice of metaphor, whereas an inferior combination of words is at the sacrifice of metonymy (p. 76)."

(Edward Jayne)

Jakobson, R. (1971). "Fundamentals of Language". The Hague/Paris: Mouton, Harvard University and Morris Halle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

1). Edward Jayne. "The Metaphor–Metonymy Binarism"

TAGS

aphasia • choice of wordsClaude Levi-Strauss • combination of words • comprehending language • constructed sentences • contiguitydeconstructionismFerdinand de Saussuregrammar • Henry James • ideasJacques DerridaJacques LacanJames Joyce • John Langshaw Austin • language • langue • langue and parole • Louis Hjelmslev • metaphormetaphoric • metonymic • metonymynaming • paradigmatic relations • parole • Paul de Man • rhetoricRoland Barthes • Roman Jakobson • selection • semiology • semiotics • sentences • signifiedsignifierstructuralism • syntactic context • syntagmatic relations • syntaxtelegraphictropesvocabularyword heapwords

CONTRIBUTOR

Simon Perkins
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